1. The issue
Darjeeling is a name of a region in north-east India (see map). Now, look at the pack of tea above. Press on each photo to read the advdertizments and signs which include:
Surely they mean that the tea inside the package was actually grown in the Darjeeling area in the Himlayan foothills, don't they? Or do they mean that the tea plants which they use were originally imported from that area? A person in the supermarket looking for Darjeeling Tea from Darjeeling hills near the Himalayans would probably feel very confident that this package holds "the real thing". Not only is the package saying that it contains "Darjeeling Tea", but it also carries two very large "Certified" signs on both its sides and it makes you think, in so many other ways, that the tea inside was grown in Darjeeling near the Himalayas.
Note: The package and brand in the above photographs are used here only for the purpose of demonstrating a case: to show how companies go a long way to make their potential customers think that the package contains real Darjeeling Tea from Darjeeling, India, since there isn't quite anything like it in the world. Yet it is unclear if the tea was really grown there. The wording of the phrases and signs on the package lead us to think that the tea was grown and processed in Darjeeling, yet we didn't find a clear statement which assures us of that, and, on the other hand, the above package cost less than 3$ - which was the same price of other types of teas from the same series of teas sold in the supermarket; yet a real Darjeeling Tea grown in Darjeeling is usually more expensive than other teas, since it is chronically in higher demand than supply. Please read on and make your own judgement.
Kenyan coffee comes from Kenya, right? Congnac comes from the region of Cognac in France, right? And Darjeeling tea comes from the region of Darjeeling in India, on the footsteps of the Himalaya, right? Well, wrong! The name is often used to mislead consumers.
India alleges that Darjeeling produces only 10 million kgs tea but about 40 million kgs of 'Darjeeling tea' is available in the world market every year (Darjeelingnews.net) . That is why the Tea Board of India is taking steps to protect the name 'Darjeeling Tea' against erroneous use.
Under section 3 of Part II of the World Trade Organization (WTO) TRIPS Agreement, products which are shown to have special qualities which are related to a certain geographical region, are regarded as Geographical Indicators (GI) and are protected, internationally, by the TRIPS Agreement, which is signed by most countries in the World.
But, "it ain't necessarily so..". As this site shows and explains, the protection of Geographical Indicators is imposed only on Wines and Spirits so far. Products like Darjeeling Tea, Columbian Coffee etc., which are clearly associated with a specific geographical region, are still not acknoledged by the WTO to be Geographical Indicators according to the TRIPS agreement.
is Darjeeling Tea?
"The Darjeeling tea industry at present employs over 52 thousand people on a permanent basis, while a further 15,000 persons are engaged during the plucking season which lasts from March to November. A unique feature of this work force is that more than 60 percent are women and the employment is on a family basis." (Darjeeling Planters Association)
According to In Pursuit of Tea, tea was first discovered in China around 2700 B.C. In 805 A.D. Tea was brought from China to Japan by a Buddhist monk. The Dutch and Portuguese brought tea to Europe around 1600. In 1689 traders with three hundred camels traveled 11,000 miles to China and back in order to supply Russia’s demand. The trip took sixteen months!
The demand for tea was very high in England, which started trading Opium for Tea with China in 1776.
In 1835 the East India company established experimental tea plantations in North-East India, in the region of Assam.
According to the Darjeeling Planters Association, "the story of Darjeeling Tea started around 1850 when a Dr. Campbell, a civil surgeon, planted tea seeds in his garden at Beechwood, Darjeeling, 7000 ft above sea level as an experiment. He was reasonably successful in raising the plant because the government, in 1847, elected to put out tea nurseries in this area.
"According to records, the first commercial tea gardens planted out by the British tea interests were Tukvar, Steinthal and Aloobari tea estates. This was in 1852 and all these plantations used seeds that were raised in the government nurseries.
"Darjeeling was then only a sparsely populated hamlet which was being used as a hill resort by the army and some affluent people. Tea, being a labour intensive enterprise, required sufficient numbers of workers to plant, tend, pluck and finally manufacture the produce. For this, employment was offered to people from across the border of Nepal.
"It appears that in 1866, Darjeeling had 39 gardens producing a total crop of 21,000 kilograms of tea. In 1870, the number of gardens increased to 56 to produce about 71,000 kgs of tea harvested from 4,400 hectares. During 1860-64, the Darjeeling Company was established with 4 gardens while the Darjeeling Consolidated Tea Co. dates back to 1896. By 1874, tea in Darjeeling was found to be a profitable venture and there were 113 gardens with approximately 6,000 hectares."
more on tea and it's long history at Wikipedia
Source: Zubin.com: Darjeeling, the land and the people
"On 1st December, 1951, under the post Independence scenario, DPA in their last Extraordinary Meeting unanimously decided to dissolve the Association and transfer all its assets and liabilities to the newly formed Association called the Darjeeling Branch of the Indian Tea Association (D.B.I.T.A.). " (Darjeeling Planters Association)
"On 20th day of December, 1983 the present “DARJEELING PLANTERS ASSOCIATION” was formed under the chairmanship of Mr. S.K. Bhasin, dissolving D.B.I.T.A.
Planters Association, is one of the constituent member of the "Consultative
Committee of Plantation Associations" (CCPA) in India." (ibid)
5. The process of making, tasting and selling Darjeeling Tea
The Art of Plucking
Tea Pluckers have strived hard for years, battling against difficult
terrain, cold, mist, rainfall etc. to maintain exacting standards. They
begin early in the morning, when the overnight dew is still present.
Only the tenderest leaves are finely plucked by gentle hands. Pluckers
are so quick and skilful that it is often impossible to follow the motion
of their hands and fingers as they pluck." (Darjeeling
"After Rolling, the leaf is spread in a cool & humid room in very thin layers. The process lasts between 2- 4 hours, depending on temperature, humidity and leaf quality. During the process the tea develops a unique flavour and aroma. The Tea Makers sensory judgement is critical to quality of the liquor. (ibid)
V. Drying (Firing)
"The fermented leaf is taken to a dryer, where it is subjected to regulated varying temperature for a period of 20 - 30 min. The result is black tea whose moisture has been lost after natural fermentation is checked." (ibid)
"This is the final stage, where the tea is graded according to the size and packed in specially designed foil lined packages." (ibid)
Tea tasting is a refined art which necessarily encompasses a large number
of variables. A taster’s palate and olfactory senses are finely
sensitive and highly discriminatory. An experienced taster can identify
the garden, ambient conditions of the plucking day and can even suggest
adjustments in the manufacturing process. A taster uses his sharp sense
of sight, smell, touch and taste while judging the quality of the tea.
taster must also have an in-depth knowledge about the prevailing market
conditions, consumer preferences and manufacturing techniques while
evaluating the tea. These are endowments of birth - it would be true
to say that tasters are born and not made. These natural talents, however,
have to be trained and developed through long years of practice before
the palate is proficient enough to register the minute differences.
This is particularly true for Darjeeling Tea Tasters as the quality
of tea differs from invoice to invoice and being an exclusive tea, it
has no yardstick to standardise against.
is only an excellent cup that truly cheers and taste is perceptible
only by the human palate - No wonder that this craft is viewed with
a tinge of awe and wonderment. (ibid)
Tea like any world famous product, requires an efficient and reliable
marketing network to promote and sell it world wide. The Auction system
is a crucial channel in the sale of Darjeeling Tea. Since more than
50% of the produce is sold through the Calcutta Auction Centre, the
role of the Auction system can be viewed as a barometer to access the
Auctioneer plays an important role. Apart from personally tasting and
evaluating each and every invoice, he has to use his knowledge of the
world demand and marketing skill in judging the marketability of the
Tea. He has final jurisdiction and his judgement determines the selling
price of the Tea, to a certain extent.
6. Legal aspects
Indian goods which are candidates for registration as Geographic Indicators (as of May 2004)
Kancheepuram silks, Chanderi silk sarees, Alphonso mangoes, Basmati
rice, Kohlapuri sandals, Bikaneri Namkin, apples from Himachal and Kashmir,
Petha from Agra, Pedha from Mathura etc. (Varupi
Jain, IndiaTogether.Org, May 2004)
Tea Board of India and its intellectual properties
"All teas produced in the tea growing areas of India are administered by the Tea Board of India under the Tea Act, 1953. The Tea Board is not involved in the manufacture of any product and is run on a non-profit basis. The functions of the Tea Board are, amongst other things, to regulate the production and cultivation of Indian tea, to improve the quality of Indian tea and to improve the marketing of Indian tea within India and abroad.
"The objective of the Tea Board, under the Darjeeling Certification Trade Mark Protection Scheme, is to put in place a mechanism to ensure the supply chain integrity for DARJEELING tea so that the tea leaving the shores of India and claimed as 'DARJEELING' tea worldwide is truly a genuine Darjeeling tea. For fair and competitive marketing of Indian tea in the international markets, the Tea Board has been administering its intellectual properties (Logos) which are as under:
[The] ... "three above marks are widely known as Speciality Tea Logos of the Board indicative of the geographical origin of produce. These Speciality Tea Logos are also known as Certification Trade Marks (CTM) of the Board. The CTM Logos have been registered under Trademark Laws of various international jurisdictions. Several users of these logos are permitted by the Tea Board to use these in the course of their tea trade as marks of origin." (Tea Board of India)
"The function of trade mark is to indicate trade origin. It serves the purpose of distinguishing the goods of one trader from those of other traders. On the other hand, the purpose of a certification trade mark is to indicate that the goods on which it is impressed have been certified by some competent person in respect of some characteristic of the goods like origin, composition, mode of manufacture, or quality. The proprietor of such a mark does not himself sell or deal in the goods. Manufacturers or dealers in the goods get them certified by the proprietor of the mark and affix the mark thereon to indicate to the public that the goods have been so certified. The manufacturer or dealer may in addition to the certification trade mark affix his own trade mark on his goods. Thus an ordinary trade mark and a certification trade mark may be used side by side in relation to the same goods.
"Three considerations naturally emerge from the special nature of a certification trade mark. Firstly, it must be adapted to serve the special purpose. Secondly, the person certifying the goods as to any particular quality or characteristic or origin must be competent for the purpose. Thirdly, the use of such mark must be regulated by suitably framed rules to prevent its abuse. In the Certification Trade Mark Protection Scheme of the Tea Board all the aforesaid three considerations are fulfilled." (Tea Board of India)
Geographical indication of goods (registration & protection) Act 1999 in the post W.T.O scenario and TRIPS
"In the wake of a new international trade regime mandated by the W.T.O., it has become imperative to streamline and strengthen the existing legal procedures for administration of intellectual property rights including geographical indications in India. Under the TRIPS Agreement, there is no obligation on the part of any member state to protect any geographical indication which has fallen into disuse or ceased to be protected in its country of origin. In addition, in recognition of the mandatory international regime, Indian Parliament has passed the new law [ GI of Goods(R&P) Act, 1999] for registration and better protection of geographical indications." (Tea Board of India)
"The Act provides for the registration and better protection of GIs relating to goods. While the Act does not make provision for individual ownership, any association of persons or producers or any organization or authority representing the interest of the producers of the concerned goods can apply for registration in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 of the Act. " (IndiaTogether.Org, May 2004)
2(e) of the act defines Geographical indication in relation to goods
as agricultural goods, natural goods, manufactured goods originated
or manufactured in the territory of country or a region or locality
in that territory where a given quality reputation or other characteristic
of such goods are attributable to its geographical origin and in case
such goods are manufactured goods one of the activities of either the
production or of processing or of preparation of the goods concerned
takes place in such a place, region or locality. " (IndiaTogether.Org,
Darjeeling tea and the Darjeeling logo & tea board's role in administering such tea
"The district of Darjeeling is situated in the state of West Bengal, India. Since about 1835, tea has been cultivated, grown and produced in certain tea gardens geographically located in the areas within the State. Due to the unique and complex combination of agro-climatic conditions prevailing in the region and the production regulations imposed by the Tea Board, such tea has a distinctive and naturally occurring quality and flavour which has won the patronage and recognition of discerning consumers all over the world. Consequently, the tea produced in the aforesaid region and having the said special characteristics, is and has for long been known to the trade and the public in India and abroad as Darjeeling tea and as such it has acquired domestic and international reputation. Any member of the trade or public in India or abroad ordering Darjeeling tea or seeing tea advertised or offered for sale as Darjeeling will expect the tea so ordered, advertised or offered for sale to be the tea cultivated, grown and produced in the District of Darjeeling and having the aforesaid special characteristics.
"In order to make the name Darjeeling distinctive of and exclusively evocative of the district of Darjeeling, the Tea Board designed a logo which consists of the word DARJEELING and a representation of an Indian woman holding tea leaves, all arranged in a roundel. In its aesthetic combination of the word DARJEELING with the woman device, the DARJEELING logo created by the Tea Board has been a source of exclusive public recognition and identification of Darjeeling tea as a geographical indication for a uniquely flavoured tea coming from the district of Darjeeling in India. The said DARJEELING logo has been extensively used by all producers, packeteers and exporters of Darjeeling tea, under licence and authority of the Tea Board.
"Consequently, the word "Darjeeling" qualifies as a certification trade mark since it is adapted to describe tea originating in the said region in terms of its naturally inherent quality or characteristics and thus distinguish the same from other teas.
"It is in order to assist the Tea Board in its role that it has applied /registered for a Certification Trade Mark for the word DARJEELING as well as the DARJEELING logo respectively in various jurisdictions. This is because the Tea Board will be in a position to bring actions for infringement of the Certification Marks or either of them.
"The Tea Board is desirous of streamlining the procedure for a consistent and easily verifiable use of the name DARJEELING in relation to tea, in its all forms, and the DARJEELING logo (hereinafter "the Certification Trade Marks") as guarantees of Darjeeling tea. The Tea Board will license persons who wish to use the Certification Marks ("authorised users") if it is satisfied that those persons will only use the Marks in relation to tea conforming to appropriate standards and coming from the Darjeeling area. The manner of use of the Certification Marks upon or in relation to Darjeeling tea certified as such, would be determined by the Tea Board and be subject to its approval before commercial use thereof. It may be noted from Regulation 5, that there is no requirement of submission of samples with the application, but the Tea Board has the right to inspect the premises and/or call for samples of tea in respect of which the applicant/licensee is desirous of using or uses "DARJEELING" and test the sample in order to determine that the Marks are only being used or will be used in relation to genuine "DARJEELING" tea. In terms of Regulation 16, a licensee is to display on its consumer packets and/or bulk packaging material his CTM User Licence Number.
" The aforesaid certification framework is in addition to the Tea Board's already existing statutory duties and functions under the Tea Act and its various enabling Orders which govern production, marketing and export of all teas administered by the Tea Board. Such functions include the right to control or regulate the use of any label or its container which bears any false claim for such tea or is misleading in any material particular. The Tea Board shall administer the Marks "DARJEELING" as per the Regulations and various Orders issued, from time to time, under the Tea Act, 1953. " (The Tea Board of India)
Steps taken in order to protect Darjeeling tea under TRIPS
The Tea Board of India started working hard on necessary steps in 1997. Already in 1986 the Darjeeling logo was created and registered in U.K., U.S.A., Canada, Japan, Egypt and under Madrid, covering eight countries.
In 1998, World Wide Watch agency CompuMark was appointed to monitor conflicting marks. Instances of attempted registration were found, some of which were challenged through opposition and cancellations and sometimes negotiations. Of the 15 instances, 5 have been successfully concluded in countries such as Japan, Srilanka, Russia etc. 6 oppositions were unsuccessful and 4 are still pending decision Use by BULGARI, Switzerland of the legend “ Darjeeling Tea fragrance for men” agreed to be withdrawn pursuant to legal notice and negotiations.
The Tea Board has obtained “home protection” by registering a Darjeeling logo and also the word “Darjeeling” as a Certification Trade Mark under the Indian Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958.
The Indian Geographical Indication of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act 1999 is a specific Act covering the registration and protection of Geographical Indications. After the Act came into force on 15th Sept.03, the Tea Board has filed an application for registration of Darjeeling tea as a “GI”.
Denton Wilde Sapte, a major U.K. law firm, appointed by the Tea Board to advise on administration of Darjeeling certification system worldwide Awareness generation at all IPR forums, WIPO conventions.
Source: Presentation by Tea Board of India, http://jpn.cec.eu.int/english/whatsnew/20040209-gi-das.pdf
India at the Doha ministerial meeting
In the run-up to the Ministerial Conference, developing countries including India had been calling extending the protection of geographical indicators to products other than wines and spirits.
"The Doha Declaration addressed their concern, but in a limited manner. While it formalized the system of protection for wines and spirits by agreeing to negotiations on the establishment of a multilateral system of notification and registration for these products, it stipulated that further study be undertaken on the issues relating to extension of GI protection to other products.
"The Council for TRIPS was to undertake this in its work programme and based on its findings, a decision would be taken at the next ministerial conference in 2003 on whether negotiations should be entered into, thus deferring the flow of benefits from such protection." (Mehra, Banerjee, Bajaj & Fernandez (Dec. 2001). India at the Doha Ministerial Meeting: An Analysis. International Journal of Regulation and Governance, 1(2): 197-214, pp. 211-212, http://www.teriin.org/online/ijrg/dec01/doha.pdf)
Current legal situation regarding protection as Geographical Indicator
Darjeeling tea is still not recognized by WTO as a Geographical Indicator. Article 23 of TRIPS gives good protection to Wines and Spirits, but currently (July 2004) not for other products.
The EU and several other countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Egypt, Hungary, India, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Mauritius, Mexico, Pakistan, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sri Lanka, Switzerland and Turkey) strugle to extend the higher level of protection provided for wines and spirits to other goods (including Darjeeling tea, Feta Cheese, etc.). The opposing countries include Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Japan, New Zealand and the US.
Therefor, there is a need for either a country specific WTO dispute settlement action or campaign for extension of Article 23 protection to Indian GIs such as Darjeeling. There's also a need for co-operation and collaboration with other administrators of well known GIs (Champagne, Scotch whisky, Stilton cheese, Colombian coffee etc).
Meanwhile, protection of Darjeeling tea needs to be strengthened via the Darjeeling logo and name.
International Trade Center
Update from Geneva Watch, June 12, 2003
Hundred Producers in Geneva to request protection for Geographical Indications
"We knew that some WTO Members consider protection for geographical indications for products other than wines and spirits as a crucial element in the negotiations. It is now the turn of producers to make their voice heard. On June 10-11, producers from 25 countries met in Geneva to discuss the need for better protection for geographical indications (GIs).
"During the meeting they created a new producer group called: ORIGINS: Organisation for an International Geographical Indications Network. The objectives of the group are: 1) to promote GIs as an instrument of development and protection for local knowledge; and 2) to send a strong message to the WTO negotiators in favor of better international protection for all GIs. Producers met with the WTO Deputy Director General, Mr. Francisco Thompson-Flôres and the WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) Deputy Director, Shozo Uemera. The Ambassador from the EC, Switzerland and India also met with the producers. The EU Trade Commissioner, Pascal Lamy spoke to the producers via telephone.
"GIs are important for producers since they use their traditional and local know-how for rural and economic development. Producers consider that currently the GIs are poorly protected which result in appropriation and exploitation of the good reputation of their products. The appropriation of the GI for a product often of lower quality, reduces the prestige and decrease prices for the original product. Producers are also losing market opporunties. For example, while 6 million pounds of “Antigua” coffee are produced in the Guatemalan region, 50 million pounds are sold under this name around the world and of the 30 million kgs of “Darjeeling” tea sold around the world, only 10 million kgs are produced in India.
A Summation of the National Symposium on Trade and Globalization Conducted in New Delhi, India on 18 –19 August 2003.
"A National Symposium on Trade and Globalization was jointly organized by the Government of India (GOI) , United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) on 18-19 August 2003 at New Delhi. The objective of the Symposium was to enable the GOI to consult with its stakeholders before the 5th World Trade Organisation (WTO) Ministerial Conference in Cancun, Mexico. It was also an opportunity to have objective, focused and informed discussions on the issues on the Doha work programme. Around 150 participants from the Government, NGOs, think-tanks, academia, private sector and law firms attended this symposium. International experts from different parts of the world also shared their views.
"The symposium was inaugurated by Honourable Union Minister of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, Mr Arun Jaitley. Ms Lakshmi Puri, Director, Trade Division, UNCTAD and Mr Maurice Dewulf, Acting Resident Representative, UNDP also spoke on the occasion providing their perspectives. The GOI made available its negotiating team, comprising inter alia of Mr Dipak Chatterjee, Secretary, Ministry of Commerce and Industry to interact with the stakeholders." (p. 1)
"On geographical indications (GIs), Article 22 (protection of GIs), Article 23 (additional protection in respect of wines and spirits; negotiations for establishment of multilateral registry) and Article 24 (certain exceptions) continue to be the focus of further deliberations. While India’s position was to extend the GI beyond wines and spirits the participants felt that further study was needed on the commercial benefits of GIs for India. "(p. 7)
Government of India, UNDP, UNCTAD
and Status: Disagreement and incomplete
Sub National Factors: Yes. Darjeeling, India.
Type of Habitat: Temperate. Villages on high hills.
The tea trade in India is one of the largest contributors to the country's economy.
But, naturally, being the world's single largest producer of tea (an estimated in 870 million kgs, was produced in 1998!) requires a large network of tea producers, retailers, distributors, auctioneers, exporters, packers, etc. and playing these roles, from the gardens to the stores, is one of the largest workforces in the country.
Being home to the world's best teas, it is no surprise that India is also one of the world's largest exporters of tea. And this is no mean feat, as the figures prove. Almost every tea-drinking nation in the world imports some variety of Indian tea!
Some of the premium varieties available throughout the world are inevitably Indian (many from the gardens of Darjeeling), apart from the value-added Tea Bags and Instant Tea which are a hugely popular in the West, especially in countries such as the USA. In 1997, India exported an estimated 203 million kgs of tea all over the world.
graph prepared by Gadi Kenny
Type of Measure: Intellectual Property
Direct v. Indirect Impacts: Indirect
Relation of Trade Measure to Environmental Impact
a. Directly Related to Product: Yes,
Trade Product Identification: Darjeeling, Pure Darjeeling, 100% Darjeeling
Impact of Trade Restriction: Low
Industry Sector: Food
Exporters and Importers: India and Many, especially Britain, United States
Twain said of Darjeeling:
view from Tiger Hill with Kanchenjunga range (right) and
Environmental Problem Type: Culture
Type, and Diversity of Species
Resource Impact and Effect: High and Product
Urgency and Lifetime: Low and 150 years
Substitutes: Like Products
Languages spoken in Darjeeling town: English, Nepali, Hindi, Tibetan and Bengali.
"The income of a garden worker is half in the form of cash and the other half by way of perquisites which have over the years effectively provided a cushion against the impact of inflation and scarcities, for example, the workers are provided with free accommodation, subsidised cereal ration and free medical benefits. Gardens used to run primary schools which have since been taken over by the government but the buildings continue to be maintained by the garden management.
"According to the census carried out in the hills in 1971, the total population of three hill sub-divisions of district viz. Darjeeling, Kurseong and Kalimpong was approximately 600,000. From the records maintained by the tea gardens, the resident population is over 300,000.
"Apart from tourism, Tea is the biggest industrial activity, offering the largest employment in the hills. The turnover of the Darjeeling tea industry is nearly USD 7.5 million, which is acknowledged to be more than the money generated by tourism in the Darjeeling hills.
"Apart from the direct production and employment figures mentioned above, a large segment of the population earn their livelihood from the peripheral sector of the industry. This consists of transport, supplies, repair, establishment etc." (The Darjeeling Planters Association)
Peoples of the region
Lepchas or Rongpas
Trans-Boundary Issues: No
11. Related cases
Note: This list certainly does not instititute any kind of recommendation. It is presented for demonstration purposes only.
European Commission (Aug. 28, 2003). WTO talks: EU steps up bid for better protection of regional quality products. IP/03/1178. Brussels. www.ictsd.org/ministerial/cancun/docs/EC_GIs.pdf
European Commission (July 30, 2003). Intellectual Property: Why Geographical Indications matter to us? Brussels. http://europa.eu.int/comm/trade/issues/sectoral/intell_property/argu_en.htm
(Sept. 2003). Trade
Barriers Regulation: What is TBR?. Brussels.
Geneva Watch. An overview of the WTO negotiations on agriculture (June 12, 2003). (Magazine) Geneva.www.chicken.ca/Geneva/v3n20_12-6-2003_en.pdf
Government of India, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), United National Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (August 2003). What is at stake at Cancun and beyond for India? A Summation of the National Symposium on Trade and Globalization. New Delhi. www.smenetwork.net/wto/uncad.pdf
Graafsma, Folkert & Alves, Sofia (1997). International Trade Developments, Including Commercial Defence Actions XIII: 1 January 1997 – 31 June 1997. http://www.ejil.org/journal/Vol9/No2/sr1.rtf
Mehra, M.K., Banerjee, S., Bajaj, R. & Fernandez, C. (?). India at the Doha ministerial meeting: an analysis. (Review article). International Journal of Regulation and Governance 1(2): 197-214. New Delhi. www.teriin.org/online/ijrg/dec01/doha.pdf
Rangnekar, Dwijen (March 2003). Protecting Geographical Indications. What developing countries need to do - lessons from the EU experience. (Seminar Presentation at UNU/INTECH, Maastricht, 26 March, 2003). www.intech.unu.edu/events/ seminar-series/2003-2-spknotes.pdf
Rangnekar, Dwijen (Oct. 2003). The Socio-Economics of Geographical Indications: A Review of Empirical Evidence from Europe. UNSTAD/ICTSD Capacity building project on Intelectual Property Rights and Sustainable Development. Coventry. www.iprsonline.org/unctadictsd/docs/order_form_web.pdf
Tea Board, India (2004?). Increased Marketing Opportunities for Speciality Quality Goods: Darjeeling. http://jpn.cec.eu.int/english/whatsnew/20040209-gi-das.pdf
UNCTAD/WTO International Trade Center().WTO Mandated Negotiations on Geographical Indications (TRIPS). http://www.intracen.org/worldtradenet/ docs/information/referencemat/tripsg1.pdf
World Trade Organization (1994). Article 23 of the Agreement of Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO). http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/27-trips_04b_e.htm
14. Links to Darjeeling tea, region, train and tourism
you are cold,
tea will warm you.
This case study compiled by Gadi Kenny (Israel)