ICE/WOW Cases Coding Document










                                  Proposed ICE/WOW Case Format

                                       Coding Document





For inventory purposes, each case is assigned a number, short

identifier, and description.



       Case Number

       Case Identifier

       Case Description



The ICE case format is broken down into four parts: two general and

two specific.  First, there is background information on the case. 

Second, there are attributes of environment in the case and, third,

attributes of conflict.  Finally, there is a section on related

information, especially available on the Web.



I.     Case Background



This section provides four parts to orient the case.  First, there

are two textual pieces: an abstract and a case descriptive report. 

The years of the conflict and where it is are also indicated.



1.     Abstract



A one paragraph description of the case.



2.     Description



A report of a few pages describing the case, including a chronology

of events.



3.     Duration



Duration shows the start and end dates for the conflict, from which

the years in the conflict can be determined.  The dates can also

serve as a tracking system to follow current cases and provide

information relevant to them.



       a.     Start Date

       b.     End Date



4.     Location



Location places the case by geography at the site of the conflict. 

The Vietnam War was fought in Vietnam, by this logic, and not in

the United States.  The category attributes are divided by the

continent, region and state.  This format allows one to organize

cases, at least by differing theaters of interest.



              Continent

              Region

              State



5.     Actors



In this category the actors in the case are shown, broken down into

two parts.  First, there are directly involved actors, and secondly

indirectly involved ones.  This is an unlimited list.



II.    Environment Attributes



This section includes environmental attributes and textual

discussion in the case study.  It includes the type of

environmental problem and type of habitat in which the problem

occurs.  Unlike the earlier location of the conflict site, it also

establishes where the harm in the case is coming from.  Finally, it

establishes how the environment itself has become linked with

conflict through strategic interest.



6.     Type of Environmental Problem



Environmental attributes are often divided between source

(resource) and sink (pollution) problems.  Source problems are used

related to conflict as a cause, but sink problems are associated

with effects of conflict.



       a.     Source Problems [Habitat, Species Loss, etc.]

       b.     Sink Problems [Pollution, Waste, etc.]



7.     Type of Habitat



The types of habitat are based on simple climatological precepts.



       a.     Dry

       b.     Cool

       c.     Temperate

       d.     Tropical

       e.     Ocean

       f.     Space



8.     Act and Harm Sites



The state in Item #4 placed the conflict according to the site of

the conflict, which sometimes coincides with where the environment

is at issue.  The site of the conflict and where it originates in

environmental terms may be different and this category points out

those instances.



                        Combinations of Act and Harm Sites (modified)



 Site of Act         Site of Harm          Example 



 (1) Nation A          Nation A     Brazil deforests the Amazon

 (2) Nation A          Nation B     Chernobyl disaster

 (3) Nation A          Commons      Russian radioactive dumping in Arctic

 (4) Commons           Commons      Over-fishing of salmon

 (5) Commons           Nation B     Lebanon waste dumping



Source: Christopher Stone



III.   Conflict Attributes



The conflict categories show the type and level of conflict, the link, the

outcome, the fatality level, and the level of strategic interest at issue.  The

categories intend to provide specific information about policy variables related

to the conflict and how they link to environmental issues.  Finally, the actors

in the conflict are indicated as are types of preventative measures.



9.     Type of Conflict



Cases generally are those that occur within states or between them.



10.    Level of Conflict



They further can be differentiated between those of a low and high value. 

Whether the cases are low or high can be determined from Category #12 that sets

the fatality level.  COW includes cases where the are 1,000 military fatalities,

but MID does not include the cases by level or even existence of fatalities,

whether civilian or military.



Threat and harm are also included where the preparation for conflict causes

environmental damage that may lead to fatalities.  Israeli threats and later

bombing of Iraqi nuclear facilities were based in part on environmental concerns. 

Likewise, weapons testing and foreign bases cause a host of environment problems.



       a.     Intrastate [Low, High]

       b.     Interstate [Low, High, Threat, Harm]



11.    Fatality Level of Dispute (military and civilian fatalities)



Conflict data bases, especially COW, often focus on military fatalities.  One

reason is that the data is simply that military death data is better than

civilian data.  However, in this category an overall fatality level, by year,

will be attempted, broken down by civilian and military.  In most cases, annual

data will be totals divided equally on an annual basis.  The scale here is

divided into logarithmic levels.



       1(1) = 1

       1(2) = 10     

       1(3) = 100

       1(4) = 1,000

       1(5) = 10,000        

       1(6) = 100,000

       1(7) = 1,000,000

       1(8) = 10,000,000

       1(9) = 100,000,000



IV.    Conflict Environment Overlap



This section attempts to synthesize the conflict and environment attributes into

common measures.



12.    Environment-Conflict Link and Dynamics



Is this case a direct conflict over an environmental issue (such as access to

resource) or is it indirect (the decline of resources leads to conflict)?  Direct

cases are more often associated with short-term and indirect cases with long-term

issues.  This makes a differences in preventative terms. 



       a.     Direct (i.e., Resource)

       b.     Indirect (i.e., Scarcity)



13.    Level of Strategic Interest



This category represents an ordinal variable, in locating the spatial scope of

interest in the case.  The interests range from small to big in terms of

geography and by implication, level of strategy.  The attribute also indicates

the level of alliance activity.



       a.     Outside Earth's Atmosphere

       b.     Global

       c.     Multilateral

       d.     Regional

       e.     State

       f.     Sub-state



14.    Outcome of Dispute



Outcomes in these types of conflict are often nebulous and a matter of

perspective.  This set of outcomes takes the position of the decision-maker in

the environmental conflict.  The position is from the standpoint of the decision-

maker in the state at issue in the case.

 

       a.     Victory

       b.     Yield

       c.     Stalemate

       d.     Compromise

       

V.     Related Information and Sources



The last section of information describes other places to go for these and other

cases.



15.    Related Cases



This includes hyper-links to related cases in ICE or the Trade Environment

Database (TED).



16.    Relevant Literature and Websites



Citations from journal and documents are included here.