TED Case Studies

Jumbo Pass Tourism




     CASE NUMBER:         248 
     CASE MNEMONIC:       JUMBO
     CASE NAME:           Jumbo Pass Tourism

I.  IDENTIFICATION

1.  The Issue

     In 1991, Oberto Oberti, on behalf of Nikkan Canada Holdings,
Ltd., put forward a proposal to develop a four seasons destination
resort in the Jumbo area, East Kootenays, British Columbia, Canada. 
The specific areas in discussion are Jumbo Pass and Jumbo Creek. 
Jumbo Pass is a plateau from where one can look down over the Jumbo
Creek and its valley.  The Jumbo Pass is surrounded by the tops of
mountians and glaciers.  The proposal, Jumbo Creek Glacier Resort,
would develop the area below the Pass and up the mountian sides to
the glaciers.  Presently, the Jumbo Pass area is popular among
tourists for hiking.  A development such as the one proposed by Mr.
Oberti would threaten the surrounding environment, the ecosystem,
and also create social and economic changes.  The initial
development of the resort would affect current trends in the
ecosystem.  The Jumbo and Stockdale creeks provide a good winter
range for moose, caribou and goats and a summer range for the same
animals plus elk, mule deer and white tail deer.  The area is also
a significant site for the breeding and congregation of grisly
bears.  Jumbo and Stockdale creeks provide a buffer zone and link
between the Buraboo Alpine Recreation Area and the Purcell
Wilderness conservancy and helps reduce the impacts of human
activity on that core area.  While back country tourism is
acceptable and welcome in this area, a large resort development
would destroy the values of this area.  It is argued that tourism
in this capacity could potentially devastate the environment within
the Jumbo Pass area of British Columbia.(1)

2.  Description
     
     The proposed Jumbo Creek Glacier Resort would provide
accommodation for up to 8,000 beds, include a village with hotels,
restaurants, meeting and convention facilities, ticket offices, ski
runs, Nordic facilities, and staff accommodations.  It would also
include a series of mini-centers with a support village, a
residential ski village and at the north end of the valley a day
lodge with vehicle parking.  Skiing would be developed on Glacier
Dome, Jumbo Mountain and ultimately Commander Glacier, which all
surround Jumbo Pass, with ski lift towers up to Farnham Peak.  A
total of thirty lifts are planned with anticipation of expansion. 
All of the glaciers could eventually be reached by lifts from the
base village.  Initial investment costs for the proposed resort in
Jumbo Pass are $250 million or more.

     The development of a resort of this magnitude poses many
potential problems.  A four season resort in the Jumbo Pass area
would certainly benefit many outdoor enthusiasts, but environmental
and social problems could potentially be disasterous.  The East
Kootenay Land-Use Plan stated, "Some areas within this zone contain
concentrations of special values - such as critical fish or
wildlife habitats, important views, conservation values, community
watersheds, sensitive recreation sites and cultural heritage
features..."(2)   Some of the negative impacts are:

     water -    Horsethief creek surface water would be treated and
                a diversion of Jumbo Creek for intake would be
                required. 

     waste -    Anticipated liquid waste per day is 1.2 million
                liters plus per day with no policy on contamination
                control.  Solid waste would be collected and
                transferred to the RDEK landfill site.

     hydro -    The existing line which services Panorama ski area
                is 25kv.  This number would be increased to 69 kv.

     roads -    Major road construction of 19 km would be necessary
                expanding from panorama to Mineral King and from
                Mineral King to the village.  According to the
                Jumbo Valley Access avalanche map there are
                approximately 33 avalanche paths that have
                historically crossed the proposed access route. 
                Due to the excessive avalanche paths along the
                route, these roads would be very costly to build
                and maintain.  Also, road upgrading through the
                Jumbo Creek will have direct impact on the existing
                moose winter range. 

     socio-
     economy -  Due to the nature and size of this development, the
                social, economic and environmental fabric of the
                small town community atmosphere would be severely
                altered.  The development would also increase
                transient employment, crime, law enforcement
                requirements, medical facilities, landfill sites,
                roads and other infrastructure support systems.


     bio-
     diverse -  The destruction of zones on Jumbo, Carney, Toby and
                Horsethief creeks would destroy existing fisheries. 
                It would eliminate the potential for mitigation
                because it would destroy all possible habitat
                resulting in negative impacts on entire
                populations.  There would be a devastating impact
                on marmots, pika, ground squirrels, grouse
                ptarmigan and golden eagles as this is a highly
                productive area for each.  Finally, the despoiling
                of high elevation and alpine vegetation would
                likely occur.(3)


3.  Related Cases:

     FRANCE case
     CANCUN case
     BERMUDA case
     HIMALAY case

     Keyword Clusters    
     (1): Forum                    = CANADA
     (2): Bio-geography            = COOL
     (3): Environmental Problem    = TOURism


4.  Draft Author: Laurie Walsh


II.  LEGAL CLUSTERS

5.  Discourse and Status:  DISagreement and INPROGress

6.  Forum and Scope: CANADA and UNILATeral

7.  Decision Breadth:  1 (Canada)

8.  Legal Standing:  SUBLAW

III. GEOGRAPHIC CLUSTERS

9.  Geographic Locations

     a.  Domain:     North America [NAMER]
     b.  Site:       Western North America [WNAMER] 
     c.  Impact:     CANADA

10.  Sub-National Factors:  YES

11.  Type of Habitat:  SNOW FORESTS [COOL]

IV.  TRADE CLUSTERS

12.  Type of Measure:  Regulatory Ban [REGBAN]

13.  Impact:  DIRECT

14.  Relation of Trade Measure to Resource Impact:

15.  Trade Product Identification:  TOURISM

16.  Economic Data:

     The proposed development of a four season resort has a
potential investment of $250 million or more.  The resort would
create thousands of jobs, as well as bring in many outside
businesses.  These changes would drastically increase the present
economic standing of the community.  

17.  Impact of Trade Restriction:  MEDIUM

18.  Industry Sector:  TOURISM

19.  Exporter and Importer:  MANY and CANADA

V.  ENVIRONMENT CLUSTERS

20.  Environmental Problem Type:     HABITat Loss

21.  Number of Species: MANY

22.  Resource Impact and Effect:  HIGH and Structure [STRCT]

23.  Urgency of Problem:  LOW

24.  Substitutes:  Eco-Tourism [ECOTR]

     Many substitutes would be used from the onset of the resort
development and opening.  Some substitutes include, RECYCling,
Alternative Energy [ALTER], and Bio-degradable products [BIODG].

VI.  OTHER FACTORS

25.  Culture:  YES

     A development such as the proposed Jumbo Creek Glacier Resort
would highly impact upon the existing culture.  It would alter the
tightly knit social, and economic fabric which currently exists. 
It could also potentially increase transient employment, crime, law
enforcement requirements, medical facilities, and much more.  In
1993, the Kaslo community celebrated its centennial - a heritage
which comes alive in the Japanese Museum, the Langham Cultural
Centre and hosts the annual Summer School of the Arts.  Surrounded
by mountains and situated near the Kootenay Lake, Kaslo is a great
summer getaway.  Golfing, fishing, hiking and mountian biking are
among the more attractive sports Kaslo offers.   Kaslo's
picturesque setting also offers a variety of shops and restaurants. 
The town also sponsors an annual Jazz Festival.  If the changes
presented by Mr. Oberti and the Pheidial Project Management
Corporation were to be carried out, both the wildlife and the
people of Kaslo would be lost.

26.  Human Rights:  NO

27.  Trans-Boundary Issues:  NO

28.  Relevant Literature

East Kootenay Environmental Information Factsheet #8 which is
sponsored by Mountain Equipment Co-op (1-800-663-2667).

Inger Kronseth, Jumbo Update.
http://www.amath.washington.edu/~frasera/jumbopass/jumbo.html

                             References

1.   East Kootenay Environmental Society Information Factsheet #8. 
Sponsored by the Mountain Equipment Co-op.

2.   Inger Kronseth, Jumbo Update.
http://www.amath.washington.edu/~frasera/jumbopass/jumbo.html

3.   East Kootenay Environmental Society Information Factsheet #8. 
Sponsored by the Mountain Equipment Co-op.


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