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Mt. Paektu and Tourism

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I. Identification

1. The Issue

Mount Paektu is regarded as a sacred place to Korean and Chinese, but has different meanings for each people. Rapid changes in the political situation in the post cold war era brought a big change in northeastern Asia. Establishment of regular diplomatic relation between China, the People's Republic of and Korea, the republic gave rise to a big increase of Korean Tourists in Manchuria and to Mount Paektu. Mount Paektu is located on and forming a part of national border line between China, the People's Republic and North Korea.

The Tumen River Area Development Project by United Nations Development Program, since 1991, is expected to give a big push to tourism. China, the People's Republic of and Russia and North Korea announced and have begun to create Free Trade Economic Zone around mouth area of Tumen River. Development of these huge areas is expected to bring a lot of income increase in more than 300 million residents in these areas and increasing tourists much bigger than before . Much worry however is given to the environmental change of these areas, which have been one of good nature conservation until now. Cultural effects to the residents would be much greater especially to Koreans of both in North Korea and Manchuria.

2. Description

Mount Paektu, which is more than 27 hundred meters of height in its peak and has a lot of huge distribution of more than hunderds of square kilo meters in the Manchuria to the north and Korea to the south, has been remained as a primitive place of nature.
Consisting of a series of parallel ranges with a general southwest to northeast axis, the mountains are a continuation of the uplands of the Liaotung and Shantung peninsulas. The ranges are for the most part made up of ancient granites and metamorphic rocks and are broken up by a number of large intermontane fault troughs. The eastern sections were the site of considerable volcanic activity in recent geological times, usually along ancient fault lines; widespread lava eruptions occurred, resulting in the formation of many extinct volcanic cones and crater lakes. The terrain is rugged, and the mountains have been cut up by many deeply incised river valleys. These rivers are fast flowing, with steep gradients and frequent rapids (Encyclopedia Brittanica).

The area is by far the wettest part of the Northeast (Manchuria) region of China; its annual precipitation, including both rain and snow, ranges from 30 to 50 in. (760 to 1,270 mm). The whole area is under solid snow cover for two months a year, and the higher peaks, which range from 5,000 to 8,000 ft (1,500 to 2,400 m) above sea level, are snow covered for more than six months. The region is densely covered with mixed deciduous and coniferous forest. Alpine meadows occur on only the highest peaks above 6,500 ft (Encyclopedia Brittanica).

It is known to be the origin place of the Korean history in 2333 B.C.(1)


There is a Tan'gun legend in connection with the founding of Ancient Choson. According to a myth, Hwanung, a descendant of a celestial being who had wished to come down to the human world and establish a nation, descended upon the top of Mt. Paektu with some 3000 subordinates and founded a divine city, ruling the world and teaching the people.

One day, a tiger and a bear in the mountain came to Hwanung and begged him to make them human beings. In response to their wishes, Hwanung gave them a bundle of mugwort and twenty pieces of garlic to test their patience and told them to eat these and avoid the sunlight for one hundred days, if they wished to become human beings. The bear which followed the instructions of Hwanung patiently became a woman in 37 days, but the tiger could not endure and failed to become a human being. Hwanung pitied the bear which was transformed into a woman, and he married her because she could not find a mate. Thus they had a son named Tan'gun who became the ancestor of the Korean people. Tan'gun united the scattered Tungusic tribes into a nation known as the Kingdom of Ancient Choson and established his capital at Asadal (now P`yongyang) in 2333 B.C.

Although the Tan'gun legend is only a myth, it not only contains many significant historical facts, but it reflects the ideals of the Koreans as it helped them to develop a pride of being the people of a long history and ancient culture. Because of this, the Koreans preserve the legend which became the source of spiritual reawakening and solace in times of racial and national crisis.

After the normalization of the Korean and Chinese relation in 90s, a lot of Koreans have visited Manchuria, especially to Yanji and Mount Paektu. These areas, of course, have some historical connection to the Korean in addition to the originality of Mount Paektu. When the Japanese imperialists had occupied the Korean peninsula in early 20th century Koreans moved to this area in order to evade colonial rule and fight against Japan. Some 300 thousands in 1930s comparing 1 or 2 thousands at the end of 19th century resided in these areas. After Japanese occupation of the Manchuria in 1930s until defeat and retreat in 1945, more Koreans settled down. The Chinese Communist's victory over Chang's People's Party brought the establishment of the Chosonjok(name of Korean race) Autonomous prefecture of Yanbien in this area. As a result, some one million of Korean residents in this prefecture, overwhelms in number the Chinese this area.(2)

YANJI city, eastern Jilin sheng (province), China. It is a county-level shih (municipality) and the administrative seat of Yan-bian-ch'ao-hsien-tsu (Yen-pien Korean) autonomous chou (prefecture), which covers a mountainous area on the North Korean-Chinese border, more than half of whose inhabitants are Korean. Medical and normal colleges form Yan-bian University. Pop. (1989 est.) 207,600

The Autonomousness includes using Korean language as a second public language, employing a lot of Korean in city and state government and reserving many Korean old traditional culture which has even disappeared in Korean peninsula. Yanji is also an important cultural centre for the Korean minority, providing radio and newspaper services in Korean. Here is what the Christian Monitor describes on this matter.(3)

Yanji is in many ways a clone of a South Korean metropolis: Korean blues wafting out of neon lit karaoke parlors mix with the singsong chatter of ethnic Koreans strolling past clubs, restaurants, and saunas at the pulsating heart of the city. Billboards feature the latest in South Korean fashions or cars, and trendy cafes lure nouveaux riches with neon lighting in Korean and English. Yet Yanji, which resembles Seoul more than it does Beijing, is actually a world within a world, the capital of a 2 strong ethnic Korean community in the northeastern Chinese province of Jilin (Chrstian Science Monitor).

Almost all of Korean visits to northern Part of China stop here. Mount Paektu, however, is not easy to approach. Yanji, the nearest city and also administrative site of the of the autonomous Prefecture is far from the Mount Paektu. It takes more than 5 hours to get there, mostly through unpaved roads. Besides the peak of the Mount allows the approach of people for only 3 months, from June to September. Underdeveloped accommodation facilities, low income of residents and far eastern location from Chinese viewpoints keep these areas relatively clean. The Ch'ang-pai shan(Chines name of Mount Paektu) Natural Reserve was established in 1960 and covers 550,000 ac (220,000 ha). It contains a great variety of vegetation and wildlife, as well as a crater lake, a high waterfall, and hot springs.(4)

In the mouth area of the Tumen River, a system of saline and semi-saline lakes is located on a total area of more than 400 square km. This area meets all the Ramsar Convention criteria for wetlands of international significance such as the presence of waterfowl ecologically dependent on an area of marsh, fen, peatland or water not more than 6 meters deep. Tens of thousands of birds migrating from Siberia to Australia and Oceania yearly stop here. As a result of the virtual absence of any economic activity, the area has retained its original population of migratory birds including the white-naped crane, golden eagle, white-tailed sea eagle, Mandarin duck, Baer's pochard and some other threatened and endangered species (Golubchikov 1992).(5)

The rapid growth of economic growth and changes in people's mind to enhance economic condition are throwing a big worry on this matter.
Estimates are that Jilin province of China, the major participant in TRADP on the Chinese side, already has an astounding 25% (twenty-five percent!) rate of annual economic growth. It is the fastest- growing region in one of the world's fastest growing economies (Rosencranz, et al 1995).(6)
The construction of factories, roads and a new international airport where direct travel to and from South Korea can be possible will bring a lot of tourists in these areas. The Tumen River Area Development Projects(TRAPs) by the United Nations Development Program which has been initiated in 1991 would also cause a big increase in number of tourists.

The expanded version of TRAPs include more than 300 million people, a huge area of some 37 thousands square km and North Korea, China and Russia Mongolia, South Korea and Japan have been indirectly related.(7)

The Tumen River area Economic Development Areas(TREDA) basically consists of that terrain located within conceptual boundary lines drawn from Chongjin in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, through Yanji in the People's Republic of China, to Nakhodka in the Russian Federation. It specifically incorporates Rajin/Sonbong Special Economic Zone in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea; the Yanbian Autonomous Prefecture in the People's Republic of China, which includes the Special Economic Zones of Yanji and Hunchun; and Vladivostok and the Free Economic Zone of Nakhodka including Vostochny, and Primorsky Krai towns and ports south of those cities, in the Russian Federation.

With rapid economic expansion, the current TREDA population of 3 million is expected to exceed 10 million by 2020 while the real average annual GDP per capita of this population is expected to rise by a factor of more than 5.0, from approximately 1200 US dollars in 1990 to some 6500 US dollars in 2020, in constant 1990 dollars.

This will result in a significant increase in the demand for effective transport to, from and within the region. Consumption of electrical energy and clean water will also increase in proportion to industrial development and population growth. A convenient, reliable, safe and cost-effective road, rail, air and seaport transportation infrastructure along with water, waste treatment and electrical energy will act as catalysts to facilitate trade and spur population growth and industrial development. Providing adequate utilities and improving transportation infrastructure for all modes to provide convenient freight distribution and travel links worldwide is a precondition to help transform TREDA into a major international shipping, trading and manufacturing zone with a favorable investment climate. Such a climate will help attract potential foreign investors and accelerate economic growth and prosperity.

Huge development of these areas already delivered a dim shadow on the Environmental problems.
The BBC reported on this matter that the water in Tumen River had become so dirty it could not be used even for industrial purposes. "With the exception of 100 km of Tumen River's upstream flowing from Mt. Paektu, the river has become seriously polluted and its quality is rated lower than the fifth level, which cannot be used for drinking and industrial purposes. This is due to the waste water flowing from the plants in Hoeryong and Musan in North Korea and in Tumen in the PRC... The water quality in Yalu River, too, has deteriorated to lower than the third level, thus it is not drinkable." (BBC 1995).(8) The UNDP's 1995 agreements to preserve this area as one of best preserved nature has been made.(9) Descriptions on diversity and endemism on Mount Paektu is given as follows:(10)

The flora and vegetation of the borderland between China and Korea is very diverse and with high endemism. Paektu san (Mount Paektu, 2744 m a.s.l., Changbai shan Mts.) characterizes this exceptionality. The abundant occurrence of the endemic deciduous tree Larix olgensis A. Henry (more than 2000 m a.s.l.) which is distributed to a small area of the Far East (Primorie Region in Russia, northeast China, and around the Changbai shan) along the elevation gradient is one example.

The species and spatial structure of forest and alpine vegetation were studied along a 30 km long elevation gradient from 1360 to 1960 m a.s.l. on the SE slope of Paektu san from. Larix olgensis was predominated tree in canopy along the whole gradient. Picea jezoensis, P. koraiensis and Abies nephrolepis were common.

Nonetheless, the development accelerated by the three countries will not give a light on this matter. North Korea recently has been suffering a terrible drought and food shortages.

According to the DPR Korea Situation Report (15 Feb - 15 Mar 1997)(11)

the formulation of the next UN Consolidated Appeal taken place between 18 and 29 March by the DHA team from New York joined by a WHO Specialist amount to USD 43.6 millionUN (Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal,1 July 1996 -30 March 97) .

North Korea's territory has some 77% of mountainous area. The Northern part which have border line with China and Russia are mainly composed of mountainous area. They are known to have bared mountains because in part to develop wood industry and in part to kill tree to get food from stems and leaves. The recent food shortages of North Korea is a complicated not only result of recent climate change but also these policies.

The Rajin-Sonbong Area Development program done by North Korean Government include comprehensive manufacturing industry and service industry such as tourism. Tourism itself is mainly aiming at getting foreign tourists in the restricted area, but sooner it will be expanded to tours toward Mount Paektu within the territory of North Korea. Besides this connecting the transportation to Hunchun in China may bring more visitors.(12)

Rajin and Chongjin and their northern areas will be realigned to form an international transportation relay system connected with China and Russia, and the cargo handling capacities of Rajin, Sonbong and Chongjin free-trade ports will be elevated;

The construction of tourist resorts seeks to link two major tourist attractions within the special economic zone--Anju (on Taecho-do island) and Shinhae (on Pipa-do) plus the Uam-Kulpo area to distant resorts such as Mt. Paektu, Mt. Kumgang (Diamond Mountain), Mt. Chilbo and the Kyongsong hot-spring resort. The plan is to build tourist hotels capable of accommodating 20,000 people simultaneously, tourist villas with a capacity of l2,000 people and camping and recreation facilities for 2,700 people. approximately US$800 million and another $6 billion of foreign capit al will be brought in to construct the infrastructure and to develop industry in North Korea.

In addition, along with a plan to operate excursion ships for sightseeing along the East Sea coast, programs are ready to guide tourists to the borders with China and Russia. North Korea has made it clear that it intends to accommodate not only tourists to the planned free-trade zone but also transit visitors.

Among the three countries development program, Rajin-sonbong Free Trade and Economy Zone is superior to other two country's from geographical viewpoint.China do not have ports within their territory to the Pacific Ocean and Russia seemed to be interested in developing Vladivostok or Nakhodka rather than Posyet which is geographically nearer to China. So among the Tumen Delta North Korean ports are most prosperous.

The barrior to development is North Korea's Political system. The reluctance to open its economy and to reform political and social system into a full market economy bar foreign investment which is essential to success of their program. The Appearance of New government in South Korea seems to propel internal conversation and trade between North and South Korea. The Sunshine policy of new South Korean government give more rooms to reconciliation. Once North Korea announce to dessert military way of unification, the Inner trade and communication would be activated more rapidly than before. The recent visit of a famous South Korean businessman named Chung Juyoung, driving more than 500 cattles to the North Korea through Panmunjeom of the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Korea, shed a light on new beginning of cooperation. He is also expected to bring back good news on more economic cooperation such as development of Mount Kumkang tourism and business investment.(13)

Cultural effect of tourists will be great in both Manchuria and North Korea. The Experience of opening communist countries to Western, bringing collapse of Communism government, has been big barrier to China and North Korea. Chinese different experience implanting a kind of market socialism , which is market economy within Communism System, have brought a different shape of Communist society.

The Korean Chinese in northeast China have been suffering a tremendous changes in usual lives. Their rather traditional agriculture-based society is collapsing rapidly. Tourists from South Korea showed to them what capitalism is about. Development of Service industry such as hotel, food and entertainment gathered many Korean women to urbane area. In rural area, it is difficult to find young ladies. This follows a big emigrants from rural area to the cities and sometimes to inside South Korea. It may bring decreases of Korean Chinese in this area in future.

The North Korean Government having been watched these phenomena on these 90s, hesitated to open whole nation and thus chose restricted opening in EFTZ. But even by these artificial restriction, the effect would not be small. Recent North Korea's situation is very vulnerable. The death of Kim Ilsung, the former autocratic ruler for almost 40 years, terrible drought and food shortage, and following exodus to China can not but eliminate even the typical communist's control on travel to people. Increasing immigrants within society and the increasing request from South Korea to communicate and trade would affect the North a lot even by small visitors. The recent opening of maritime route from Sokcho in South Korea to Rajin in North Korea gives another possibility of many south Korean's visit to North. Whether North Korea will succeed in implanting a kind of market socialim in their closed territories and to activate people to work in their whole territories or not, totally depend on their choice. Do they follow Chinese style?

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4. Draft Author:

Jongjung Lee, June 16,1998

II. Legal Clusters

5. Discourse and Status: Allegation and In Progress

6. Forum and Scope:China/North Korea and Bilateral

7. Decision Breadth: 2

8. Legal Standing: Treaty

III. Geographic Clusters

9. Geographic Locations

a. Geographic Domain: Asia

b. Geographic Site: East Asia

c. Geographic Impact: China and North Korea

10. Sub-National Factors: Yes

11. Type of Habitat:


IV. Trade Clusters

12. Type of Measure: Regulatory Measure

13. Direct v. Indirect Impacts: Indirect

14. Relation of Trade Measure to Environmental Impact

a. Directly Related to Product: Yes, Tourism

b. Indirectly Related to Product: No

c. Not Related to Product: No

d. Related to Process: Yes, Pollution Land

15. Trade Product Identification: Tourism

16. Economic Data

According to North Korea's announcement, as of February, l996, the infrastructure construction project in the Rajin-Sonbong area had achieved the following:

(1) projects had been completed for setting up fences in barbed wire entanglements around the free-trade zone, to construct those Rajin port facilities required to relay fertilizer, to electrify the Rajin-Haksong-Namyang-Hweryong railroad line, to install an optical cable between Rajin and Wonjong, and to construct a heliport in the planned area; (2) projects were under way to install interior decorations for Rajin's first international hotel, to expand the width of the Rajin-Wonjong highway, to improve the dredging and stevedoring facilities for Rajin's port, to construct the Rajin customs house, to make a tourist highway to Pipa and to build high-class rental houses; (3) as of mid-April, l996, 40 cases of foreign capital inducement contracts totaling US$350 million had been concluded, 20 cases of which, amounting to $35 million in direct foreign investment, had begun to be carried out; and, (4) major foreign investors are said to include New Northeast Asia Co., Tyson Enterprise, Pregreen Investment Co. of Hong Kong, the Rocksly Group of Thailand, Royal Dutch Co. of the United Kingdom, the Stanton Group of the United States, the ING Bank of the Netherlands, and a trading corporation from China.

In the latter phase (2001-2010), the projected zone is to be further developed into a pivotal city for international economic exchange like a second Singapore, to play an integrated role ranging from intermediate trade and the processing of export products to tourism and international financing.

The free-trade Chongjin port outside the special economic zone will be rebuilt and expanded to increase its annual intermediate cargo handling capacity from the present 8 million tons to 20 million tons by the goal year

17. Impact of Trade Restriction: Medium

18. Industry Sector: Services

19. Exporters and Importers: Korea and China

V. Environment Clusters

20. Environmental Problem Type: Pollution Land

Increased pressure on the environment will be a major concern in the Tumen River delta, which is not to lose their unique ecological quality and biodiversity.(14)
The existence of large populations of transboundary migrating birds is a major concern. Besides, the area immediately adjacent to the Tumen River basin and stretching along the lower Ussuri and Amur Rivers south and east into the southern Sikhote-Alin also represents a unique and extremely diverse ecosystem. In their choice of a strategy for incorporating these values in their decisions, the developers will ultimately have to answer one of the following questions (a) "How to protect biodiversity in the face of the growing developmental pressures in Northeast Asia?" or (b) "How to develop this part of the world without harming the environment?
NGO activists David Gordon and Armin Rosencranz wrote in the Christian Science Monitor in April 1993:
The Tumen River Area Development Program seems poised to repeat the classic development model often promoted by international agencies. TRADP would open up resource-rich areas (Siberia, Mongolia) to intensive exploitation by capital-rich areas (Japan, South Korea), all in the name of free trade and international cooperation. Historically, this model has paid little attention to long-term benefit, local value-added processing, or environment protection. (Gordon and Rosencranz, 1993) (1) In the mouth area of the Tumen River, a system of saline and semi-saline lakes is located on a total area of more than 400 square km. This area meets all the Ramsar Convention criteria for wetlands of international significance such as the presence of waterfowl ecologically dependent on an area of marsh, fen, peatland or water not more than 6 meters deep. Tens of thousands of birds migrating from Siberia to Australia and Oceania yearly stop here. As a result of the virtual absence of any economic activity, the area has retained its original population of migratory birds including the white-naped crane, golden eagle, white-tailed sea eagle, Mandarin duck, Baer's pochard and some other threatened and endangered species (Golubchikov 1992).

The Tumen Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Conservation Program (TCMBCP)
The problem of preservation of biodiversity, particularly transboundary migrating birds, is in the center of the UNDP efforts to mitigate potential environmental impacts of the TRADP project. To this end, the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) sponsorship has been sought through the development of the Tumen Coastal and Marine Biodiversity Conservation Program (TCMBCP). With UNDP as the lead agency, five other agencies participating in the proposed TCMBCP project are:
* Committee for Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, Primorski Territory, Russian Federation;
* Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences;
* Environmental Protection Bureau, Jilin Province, PRC;
* Northeastern Normal University, Jilin Province, PRC;
* State Committee for Environmental Protection, DPRK.
Besides Russia, PRC, and DPRK, the project proposal is supported by Mongolia and South Korea. In addition to the proposed financing by the GEF ($3 million), co-financing is sought from the developed countries through which the migratory species move. These include Australia, Japan, and South Korea. Biodiversity in the coastal zone has become the focus of UNDP's initial effort to address environmental issues in conjunction with TRADP. However, the magnitude of developmental pressures in that part of Northeast Asia is expected to be much higher than the suggested scope of TCMBCP. The area known as TREDA (Tumen River Economic Development Area) is already being transformed into an international shipping, trading and manufacturing base (UNDP, 1995). Moreover, in its advanced stages, the geographic scope of the Tumen River Development project is expected to include the Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin and the semiautonomous region of Inner Mongolia, all administrative districts of the Russian Far East, especially Primorski (Maritime) and Khabarovski Territories, all of Mongolia, and both Koreas (Marton, et al. 1995, p. 26). The most variable factor and thus the primary area of potential improvement is, undoubtedly, leadership -- both institutional and regional. UNDP's leadership role with local and regional governments, scientific institutions, and non-governmental organizations should be much stronger that it is presently. Finally, the argument that environmental preservation needs productive international cooperation. Now that the Cold War is over, and even the most recalcitrant political leaders realize the benefits of free trade and economic openness, the nations of Northeast Asia will eventually find a way to develop their economies -- with or without TRADP. It is in the area of environmental sustainability that the help of multilateral agencies is most needed, and that is where their coordinating efforts can most contribute to peace and stability in Northeast Asia.

21. Name, Type, and Diversity of Species

22. Resource Impact and Effect:

23. Urgency and Lifetime: Low and 100s of years

24. Substitutes: Recycling

VI. Other Factors

25. Culture: Yes

General aspcts on the North korea are as follows.
Sourses:Korea Herald, A Handbook of North Korea,1996, E-mail : woot@soback.kornet.nm.kr

Area: 122,762 sq.km
Population: 23.56 million (1996)
Coastline: 2,495km
Borderline: 248km with South Korea, 1,360km with China, and 16.5km with Russia
Mountainous Areas: 94,772 sq.km (77.2 percent of total area)
Arable land: 21,173 sq.km (17.3 percent of total area)

At least up until 1945, when World War II came to an end, some 50,000 Catholics, 300,000 Protestants, and millions of Buddhists were active in North Korea. The North Korean Communists, as soon as they seized power backed by Soviet occupation forces, began to act against religious belief, saying it is the enemy of the working class. As a result,2,000 churches and 400 temples were destroyed or converted into places for nonreligious use. The constitution of North Korea revised in 1972 carried a phrase which says: "Citizens have freedom of religion and freedom of anti-religious propaganda." In 1992, the constitution was rewritten, but the religion-related phrase still carries unreasonable remarks: "citizens have freedom of religious belief. This right guarantees the right to building facilities for religious use, as well as religious ceremonies. No one may use religion as a means by which to drag in foreign powers or to destroy the state or social order." North Korea has religious institutions such as the Buddhists Federation, the Christians Association and the Roman Catholics Association, but they are merely propaganda tools for the North Korean Communist regime. In 1988 North Korea built a Protestant church in Pyongyang, named the "Bongsu Church," and later another one, named the "Chilgol Church." But they serve as show pieces for foreigners.

Travel Control
In North Korea no one is free to make even a domestic trip. When one wants to make trip, she or he must apply for a travel certificate which includes food ration cards which he or she has to submit to inns or restaurant to get meals. This certificate sometimes provides chances for officials in charge to receive bribes. Since the late 1980s, this travel control seems to have been relaxed due to increasing number of travellers who try to visit country areas in search of food.

Growing Shortage of Food, and Exodus of People
North Korea has been suffered from a severe food shortage since the late 1980s. The people began to cross the border into China in search of food. The number of deserters began to increase drastically since the late 1980s, and the number of such people stranded in China was reported to be more than 2,000 in the early 1990s. The food problem has begun to develop from bad to worse since 1995 when the worst floods hit the country, let alone aggravated by the "Juche farming method," which is far from reality to catch up with the development of new technology and management systems. The privileged people of Workers' Party members, soldiers and Pyongyang citizens are given better rations. 6/12/98

26. Trans-Boundary Issues: Yes

The Rajin-Sonbong area is a triangular zone in North Korea in connection with the development project of the Tumen River bordering on China and Russia. Accordingly, the planned area may be a test case in economic cooperation with China and Russia. The free-trade Chongjin port outside the special economic zone will be rebuilt and expanded to increase its annual intermediate cargo handling capacity from the present 8 million tons to 20 million tons by the goal year

Efforts to institutionalize the development of the Rajin-Sonbong zone have been made not only through the multilateral channel of UNDP but also the bi-lateral channel of North Korea and China and by North Korea itself. There are three levels of development:
(1) a multilateral approach through the United Nations Development Programs's (UNDP's) Tumen River Area Development Program (TRADP) including agreements concerning a consultation committee for the development of the Tumen River area and Northeast Asia and a coordinating committee on the development of the Tumen River area; (2) a bilateral approach to open the passage between Wonjong in South Korea and Kwonha in North Korea and the maritime route between Pusan and Rajin; (3) North Korea's unilateral decision to expand the Rajin-Sonbong free-trade area, elevate the zone to the status of a province-level special city under direct control of the North Korean cabin et and revise the Rajin-Sonbong construction plan.

27. Rights: No

28. Relevant Literature

1. Andrew C. Nahm, TAN'GUN and the founding legend of Korea, A Panorama of 5000 Years: Korean History. pages 14-15.
2.Kwon,Taewhan,Koreans arounds world:China(Korean ed.), Jeongmunsa 1996, pp42-53.
3.Kevin Platt, For Millions of Korean Chinese, A Pied Piper Beckons: S. Korea The south's influence grows in China's northeast, Christian Science Monitor Oct 9, 1997 p. 7, col. 1 Oct 9, 1997
4.Encyclopaedia Britannica.t 1994-1998
5.Victor B. Loksha, Development Area: Environmental Challenge for Northeast Asia. - The Tumen River Economic Development Area: Environment - Digital Library | APRENet |- http://www.nautilus.org/aprenet/library/tumen/loksha.html or Golubchikov, S., 1992. What’s the Danger in ‘Tumengang’? Moscow, Energia (in Russian). no. 12: 43-4.
6..Victor B. Loksha, ibid., or Rosencranz, A., Kibel, P.S., Weiss, A. 1995. Greening the Blueprint: Environment, Development, and the Art of the Possible in Northeast Asia, Amicus Journal (Spring): 15-17
7.Tumen River Development Issues:REPORT C. Concepual Infrastructure.Master Plan, Prepared by The Tumen River Area Development Programme,1995,: available from APRENet Online Library
8.Victor B. Loksha, ibid. or BBC. 1995. Summary of World Broadcasts (Source: Kyonghyang Sinmun, Seoul, in Korean, March 95, p.21) March 15.
9.Victor B. Loksha, ibid. 10.Srutek,Miroslav, Species and Spatial Structure of Forests on Paektu san, North Korea,
11. DPR Korea Situation Report ,15 Feb - 15 Mar 1997, North Korea ,UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA) Date: 15 Mar 1997, Document provided by ReliefWeb
12.Pae Chong-ryol,The Evaluation of and Prospects for Development of North Korea's Free-Trade Economic Zone, The Export-Import Bank of Korea, Seoul
13.Kevin Sullivan, S. Korean Auto Tycoon Drives Cattle to North, Washington Post Wednesday, June 17, 1998; Page A01
14.Victor B. Loksha, ibid. or Gordon, David and Rosencranz, Armin. 1993. Tumen River Project Needs Tighter Reins. Christian Science Monitor. April 19. or Marton, A., McGee, T., and Paterson, D.G. 1995. Northeast Asian Economic Cooperation and The Tumen River Development Project, Pacific Affairs (Spring).


1. Srutek, Miroslav.Species and Spatial Structure of Forests on Paektu-san,

   available from online library of American University----
   S1.01-00 Ecosystems / S1.02-00 Site
   Theme: Ecology of Biodiversity, Part 1(Moderator: J. Fanta),1995 

2. Korea Herald, A Handbook of North Korea,1996,
   E-mail  woot@soback.kornet.nm.kr.    

3. A Panorama of 5000 Years: Korean History, Andrew C. Nahm, pp14-15

   Call number: DS.907.18.N34.1983.EAST.ASIAN

4. Platt, Kelvin."For Millions of Korean Chinese, A Pied Piper Beckons: S. Korea's 

  influence grows in China,s northeast." In Christian Science Monitor Oct. 9, 1997, 

  col. 1 [database online]; available from                   

5. Tumen River Development Issues:REPORT C. Concepual Infrastructure.Master Plan    Prepared by The Tumen River Area Development Programme,1995,: available from    APRENet Online Library.

6.1994-1998 Encyclopaedia Britannica, Wade-Giles romanization 


7.Pae Chong-ryol,The Evaluation of and Prospects for Development of North Korea's Free-Trade Economic Zone, The Export-Import Bank of Korea, Seoul 

8. DPR Korea Situation Report ,15 Feb - 15 Mar 1997,
  North Korea ,UN Department of Humanitarian Affairs (DHA)
  Date: 15 Mar 1997, Document provided by ReliefWeb 

9.REPORT G Preliminary Environmental Study Prepared by: The Tumen River Area Development Programme Environment..., APRENet Online Library - Tumen River Development Issues - Tumen Library | APRENet |

10.Victor B. Loksha,  Development Area: Environmental Challenge for Northeast Asia. - The Tumen River Economic Development Area: Environment - Digital Library | APRENet |

11.REPORT I TRADP Tourism Study Prepared by: The Tumen River Area Development Programme Tourism Sub-Group United,  APRENet Online Library - Tumen River Development Issues - Tumen Library | APRENet |

12.Kwon,Taewhan,Koreans arounds world:China(Korean ed.), Jeongmunsa ,1996.

13.Kim, Taehong.,Tumen River Devepoment:Testimony of Northeast Economic
Coperation.(Korean ed.)available from -http://www.unikorea.go.kr/

Related organizations and web sites
1. United Nations Develope Programs for Tumen River Development Programs.
   -Email - tumem@iuol.cn.net
2.Rebublic of Korea's Embassy in Washington DC 

3.Korea web weekly - www.kimsoft.com.kr

4.Jilin Province Government, China, People's Republic

5.Korean Unification Research Institute

6.H.Kyo Suh, Editor,Korea Report  E-mail: kirc@igc.org     Web: KIRC 
                  P.O.Box 34364  Washington, DC 20043-4364

7.1998 Peace Unification Research Institute              
              -http://www.onekorea.org  -onekorea@onekorea.org 
              35-20 147th St., Room 2A Flushing, NY 11354 USA


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