IT in Cuba

Telecommunication Infrastructure

Liberalization and Deregulation

Internet Diffusion

Electronic Commerce

Hardware Manufacturing

Software Manufacturing

Who Uses IT?

IT Labor Market

IT Geographics

IT Financing

Government Policies

Legal Environment

Transborder Data Flows

Analysis: IT Strengths and Weaknesses

Analysis: Impacts on the Business

Sources and Links

About the Authors

 

Information Technology in Cuba

Sources

1. Larry Press, "Cuban Telecommunication Infrastructure and Investment." Conference for the Study of the Cuban Economy, Miami, FL, August 1996. http://som.csudh.fac/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/asce.htm

2. Press, p. 16.

3. Ibid.

4. 1998-99 World Telecommunication Development Report, International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, 1999. http://www.itu.int/ti/industryoverview/at-glance/basic99.pdf

5. Press, p. 3.

6. Ibid.

7. CIA World Factbook 2000 http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/cu.html

8. Press, p. 7.

9. Ibid.

10. CIA World Factbook 2000.

11. Cubacel website http://www.cubacel.com/lng/

12. Ibid.

13. 1998-99 World Telecommunication Development Report, International Telecommunications Union, Geneva, 1999. http://www.itu.int/ti/industryoverview/at-glance/cellular99.pdf

14. Cubacel website http://www.cubacel.com

15. Press, p 4.

16.Ibid.

17. Ibid.

18. Nelson Valdes, "Mexico Buying into Cuban PTT." The Incubator, June 1994. http://www.nsrc.org/db/lookup/operation-lookup-report/ID-89020243469/:49

19. Ibid.

20. Press, p. 2.

21. Press, p. 4.

22. G.M. Mesher, R.O. Briggs, S.E. Goodman, L.I. Press, and J. M. Snyder, "Cuba, Communism, and Computing." Communication of the ACM, Volume 35, No. 11, November 1992, pp. 27-29, 112. http://som.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/cuba2.htm

23. Ibid.

24. Tess Van Straaten, "Cuba a Prolific Source of IT Staff, Projects." The Ottawa Citizen, November 30, 1998.

25. Mesher.

26. Van Straaten.

27. Ibid.

28. Martha R. Morales and Beatriz Zanetti, "Cuban Experiences in the Marketing of Software Products." http://som.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/papereng.html

29. CIA World Factbook 2000, pg. 4.

30. Carmelo Mesa-Lago and Jorge Perez-Lopez, "Cuba's Economy: Twilight of an Era." The World Bank Group Transition Newsletter, March 1999.

31. Cuba: World Factbook-US Department of Commerce National Trade Data Bank.

32. Philip Peters, "Cuba's Small Businesses: Taking a Wild Ride." The World Bank Group Transition Newsletter, June 1997.

33. Ibid.

34. Tess Van Straaten, Cuba a Prolific Source of IT Staff, Projects." The Ottawa Citizen, November 30, 1998.

35. Larry Press, " The Internet in Cuba." Mosaic Group Report, pg. 28.

36. Ibid.

37. "ABC News: Cubans Surf Toward Freedom of Information." July 26, 2000, NUA Internet Surveys http://www.nua.ie/surveys/

38. "Cuba to Get Some Internet Access." The ISOC Forum Electronic Newsletter, July 25, 1996 issue, Volume 2, No. 7, the Internet Society Website. http://www.isoc.org

39. Cuba Business Journal Website http://www.cubabusinessjournal.com

40. NUA Internet Survey of Latin America Online Users http://www.nua.ie/surveys/how_many_online/s_america.html

41. "IABIN: Report Tallys Latin American ISP Industry." NUA Internet Surveys, April 26, 1999. http://www.nua.ie/surveys/index.cgi?f=VS&art_id=905354863&rel=true

42. Larry Press and Carlos Armas, "Cuban Networking Update," July 19, 1996 http://som.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/update.htm

43.Larry Press, "The Internet in Cuba."

44.Larry Press, "Internet Diffusion Summary, Cuba," October 1997. http://som.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/cubadtm.htm

45. Network Startup Resource Center webpage http://www.nsrc.org/db/lookup/operation=lookup-provider/ID=890201897031:497416617/fromPage=CU

46. Nelson Lopez Centeno, Viena Garcia Acosta, Carlos Armas, "CIGB Intranet," The Internet Society Website http://www.isoc.org/isoc/conferences/inet/00/cdproceedings/inet97/E4/E4_2.HTM

47. Press and Armas.

48. Ibid.

49. United Nations Sustainable Development Networking Programme website http://www3.undp.org/

50. G.M. Mesher, R.O. Briggs, S.E. Goodman, L.I. Press, and J.M. Snyder, "Cuba, Communism, and Computing." Communications of the ACM, Vol. 35, No. 11, November 1992, pp. 27-29, 112. http://som.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/cuba2.htm

51. Ibid.

52. Ibid.

53. Philip Peters, "Cuba's Small Businesses: Taking a Wild Ride." The World Bank Group Transition Newsletter, May/June 1997.

54. Cuba Economic News Website http://www.cubabiz.com

55. Richard Lapper, "For Now, A Story of Mixed Fortunes." FinancialTimes.com website, November 1, 2000 http://www.financialtimes.com

56. Lonely Planet Website http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/caribbean/cuba

57. Bardacke, Ted, "Mexicans to Buy 49% of Cuban Phone System," Washington Post, June 14, 1994.

58. Dolan, Kerry A., "Their Man in Havana," Forbes, September 11, 1995, pp 60-68.

59. Press, Larry. "Cuban Telecommunication Infrastructure and Investment."
Conference for the Study of the Cuban Economy, Miami, FL, August 1996. http://som.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/asce.htm

60. Perez-Lopez, Jorge F., "A Critical Look at Cubaís Foreign Investment Program," Meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, Washington, D. C., September 28-30, 1995.

61. Press, Larry. "Global Diffusion of the Internet." http://som.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/cubasy.htm

62. Press, Larry. "Toward a US Cuban Networking Policy." http://som.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/cuba4.htm

63. ICANN website http://www.icann.org

64. Network Solutions website http://networksolutions.com

65. Larry Press, "The Internet in Cuba." Mosaic Group Report on the Global Diffusion of the Internet, 1997. http://som.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/cubasy.htm

66. The Latin American Integration Association (ALADI) website http://www.imf.org/np/sec/decdo/laia.htm

67. Hinchberger, Bill. "The New E-Man" The Standard. April 10, 2000.

68. Cuba World Factbook , U.S. Department of Commerce-National Trade Data Bank, May 6, 2000.

69. Cuba World Factbook Background Notes, U.S. Department of Commerce-National Trade Data Bank, May 6, 2000.

70. Ibid.

71. Ibid.

72. Cuban Investment Opportunities-Cuba Economic News. http://www.cubabiz.com

73. Pure Cuba Play website http://www.purecubaplay.com

74. Cuba World Factbook , U.S. Department of Commerce-National Trade Data Bank, May 6, 2000.

75. Ibid.

76. Cuba World Factbook Background Notes, U.S. Department of Commerce-National Trade Data Bank, May 6, 2000.

77. Ibid.

78. Ibid.

79. Ibid.

80. Cuban Investment Opportunities-Cuba Economic News. http://www.cubabiz.com

81. Cuba Business Journal Online http://www.cubabusinessjournal.com

82. Bill Hinchberger, "Cuba's Internet Elite Emerges." CNN.com, April 11, 2000.

83. Internet Cuba http://www.internetcuba.com

84.Bill Hinchberger, "The New E-Man." The Standard, April 10, 2000.

85. Larry Press, "The Internet in Cuba." http://som.csudh.edu/fac/lpress/devnat/nations/cuba/cubasy.htm

86. "ABC News: Cubans Surf Toward Freedom of Information." July 26, 2000. http://www.nua.ie/surveys

87.Pure Cuba Play website http://www.purecubaplay.com/sc.html

88. Larry Press, "The Internet in Cuba," p. 28.

89. Tess Van Straaten, "Cuba a Prolific Source of IT Staff, Projects."

90. Tess Van Straaten. "Cuba, A Prolific Source of IT Staff, Projects" The Ottawa Citizen, November 30, 1998.

91. ITU website http://www.itu.int/ECDC/activities/ecdccountries.htm

92. "Cuba to Cut U.S. Phone Ties in Retaliatory Measure." CNN.com, December 8, 2000. http://www.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/americas/12/08/us.cuba.02.reut/

93. Silicon Calle website http://www.siliconcalle.com

94. Tess Van Straaten. "Cuba, A Prolific Source of IT Staff, Projects" The Ottowa Citizen. November 30, 1998.

95. Larry Press, "The Internet in Cuba," p. 20.

Links

1. Virtual Tour of Cuba http://library.thinkquest.org/18355/virtual_tour.html

2. Government Portal http://www.cubaweb.cu

 

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