A Chronology of Boston City Council Orators on the Fourth of July, 1783 to 1997

Researched by James R. Heintze. All Rights Reserved.


Introduction
This list of orations covers the years 1783-1997. All of the orations cited herein were sponsored by the City Council of Boston and are commonly referred to as the "municipal orations." Note that the municipal orations were not the only orations given in any specific year. Typically, two or more addresses were presented annually in Boston, some at meetings of patriotic associations, as well as other organizations. For example, on behalf of the Washington Society, Ashur Ware and Andrew Dunlap presented orations in 1816 and 1832, respectively. William Burdick addressed the Boston Franklin Association on July 5, 1802. In 1828 while Brandford Sumner was delivering his municipal oration in front of the governor of Massachusetts and other citizens, Joseph Hardy Prince was in Faneuil Hall at the Andrew "Jackson Celebration" there delivering his address and James D. Knowles was addressing the Baptist churches and societies in the Second Baptist Meeting House.

This list is based in part on the compilations by C. W. Ernst who had his lists of Boston orators published as a series of appendixes to a number of printed orations beginning in 1894. The current list is more comprehensive, however, and includes full titles of orations and additional commentary on specific titles and publisher information. Almost all of the municipal orations were printed as pamphlets by the Boston City Council, making the city of Boston unique in this respect.

Many of the orations were presented in the historic Faneuil Hall. Other locations included Stone Chapel, Boston Common, Music Hall, First Church, Old South Church and Tremont Temple. It is significant that these orations reflected the social and political interests of Bostonians, if not the nation, and therefore provide valuable information, both from a historical and celebratory perspective, on the heritage and traditions of the Fourth.

The impetus for the tradition of municipal orations in Boston stemmed from an act passed at a town meeting in March 1783, when it was decided that the annual celebration of commemorating the Boston Massacre of March 5, 1770, be replaced with a yearly Independence Day celebration. The signing of the Declaration in 1776 was described in the legislation as

a day ever memorable in the Annals of this country for the declaration of our Independence shall be constantly celebrated by the Delivery of a Publick Oration, in such place as the Town shall determine to be most convenient for the purpose In which the Orator shall consider the feelings, manners and principles which led to this great National Event as well as the important and happy effects whether general or domestick which already have and will forever continue to flow from the auspicious epoch. (Massachusetts Historical Society, Proceedings XVI [1902], 100; James Spear Loring, The Hundred Boston Orators Appointed by the Municipal Authorities and Other Public Bodies, from 1770- 1852 [Boston 1852], 156.)
For years the resolution was not only faithfully adhered to, but also mentioned in many of the orations. See, for example, John Gardiner (1785), Thomas Dawes (1787), George Blake (1795), Charles Theodore Russell (1851), and Richard Frothingham (1874). Charles Theodore Russell, for example, quoted the act and stated that he presented his oration "in no spirit of exuberant patriotism, or national glorification, but in accordance with that vote of the town of Boston in 1783. . . . I do it, because I believe such a consideration will tend to dispel fears for the safety of our Union, and assure us that there is for our country 'an anchor both sure and steadfast' amid whatever tempest may assail it."

An informative article published in the Boston Gazette, (18 July 1811, 1), discusses the origins of the municipal orations and how an orator was selected:

A warrant is issued a few days previous to the celebration, for a Town-Meeting, to be held on the morning of the 4th July; the Constables give verbal notice to the inhabitants, and make return of their proceedings. The Selectmen and a few others assemble; the meeting being opened, the Town Clerk is chosen Moderator, and the selectmen report the name of the gentleman chosen by them to deliver the Oration. The meeting then adjourns to the Old South Church, which, by the consent of its proprietors, has long been used on this occasion; the Town being assembled at the appointed hour, the Oration is pronounced; after which a vote of thanks is passed to the orator, a copy requested for the press, and the Selectmen are constituted a committee to appoint a suitable person to deliver an Oration the following year.
Investigative research continues on this list to fill in years that are lacking. Most of the orations contained herein have not been studied to any great length. Excellent introductory texts that discuss the major themes evident in political oratory are Howard Hastings Martin, "Orations on the Anniversary of American Independence, 1777-1876" (Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 1955) and John L. Morrison, "A Historical Analysis of Fourth of July Orations, 1791-1861" (M.A. thesis, University of Missouri, 1949). For an article on various aspects of orations presented in Boston during the early years, see Gerd Hurm, "The Rhetoric of Continuity in Early Boston Orations," in The Fourth of July: Political Oratory and Literary Reactions, 1776-1876 (Tubingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 1992), 57-84.

Other useful sources include James Spear Loring, The Hundred Boston Orators Appointed by the Municipal Authorities and Other Public Bodies, from 1770-1852 (Boston: J. F. Jewett and Company, 1854). Readers may be interested to know about the following two lists: in 1836, 14 orations presented in Massachusetts towns were cited in the Boston Daily Advertiser, 4 July 1836 and in 1865 a list of 152 orators was printed in the New York Times, 4 July 1865, 1. Also of note, an article ("Boston's Commemorations") in the New York Times on July 4, 1871 (p. 2), named Charles Sprague (1825), Horace Mann (1842), and Charles Sumner (1845) as three individuals whose speeches "have enjoyed great fame, and extracts . . . are declaimed in schools in all parts of the country."

Orations

1783. Warren, John (1753-1815). An Oration; Delivered July 4th, 1783, at the Request of the Inhabitants of Boston; in Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence ([Printed by Joh]n Gill, in Court-Street, 1783); printed in Independent Chronicle and the Universal Advertiser, 4 December 1783, 1.
The oration was delivered in the Brattle Square Church. Warren begins his speech this way: "To mark with accuracy and precision, the principles from which the great and important transactions on the theatre of the political world originate, is an indispensible duty, not only of legislatures, but of every subject of a free State; fraught with the most instructive lessons on the passions that actuate the human breast, the enquiry is amply adapted to the purpose of regulating the social concerns of life."
1784. Hichborn, Benjamin (1746-1817). An Oration, Delivered July 5th, 1784, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston in Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Gill, 1784).
In his oration, Hichborn warned against the dangers of having standing armies: "But I hope the partiality we feel for our patriotic army will never suffer us to forget that military force has always proved dangerous to the liberties of the people, that the natural safeguard of the country is a well-regulated militia, and that America must date the decline of her peace, her glory and independence from the establishment of a regular army" (as reported in Martin, 109).
1785. Gardiner, John (1737-1793). An Oration, Delivered July 4, 1785, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Celebration of the anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed by Peter Edes, State-street, 1785).
Gardiner's address was delivered in the Stone Chapel.

1786. Austin, Jonathan Loring (1748-1826). An Oration, Delivered July 4, 1786, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Celebration of the anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed by Peter Edes, 1786).

Austin, a Revolutionary War soldier, served as secretary to Benjamin Franklin, in Paris. On a second trip to Europe, he was captured by the English, but was eventually released. Following the war, Austin was involved in commercial pursuits.
1787. Dawes, Thomas, Jr. (1757-1825). An Oration, Delivered July 4, 1787, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed by S. Hall, 1787).
Dawes was a justice of the Massachusetts State Supreme Court, 1792-1802, and in his oration he espoused the importance of education, especially for those filling government seats. ". . . In a government where the people fill all the branches of sovereignty, Intelligence is the life of liberty." For commentary on this oration, see "Part of an Oration, Delivered at Boston on the 4th of July, 1787," The American Magazine (August 1788): 619-23.

Dawes begins his oration with these words: "We are convened, my Fellow Citizens, to consider the feelings, manners and principles which led to our Independence--the effects which have flowed, and the consequences that will probably follow, from that great event. In contemplating the principles which originated, let us not confound them with the occasions that only ripened, our Independence."

1788. Otis, Harrison Gray (1765-1848). An Oration Delivered July 4, 1788: at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed by Benjamin Russell, 1788).
Otis was born in Boston and eventually became a member of the Massachusetts State House. In 1796 he was appointed U.S. district attorney for Massachusetts, and in 1805 a member of the Massachusetts State Senate. He was mayor of Boston during 1829-31. According to a report in the Boston Gazette, 7 July 1788, 3, Otis delivered "a spirited & well-adapted Oration, which received the plaudits of an immense number of his fellow citizens assembled on the occasion."

From his address, Otis says to his audience," I pass over the eventful history of the late war--my feelings otherwise would impell me to devote too large a portion of time, to eulogies upon the heroes who have fought and bled and those who have returned to the bosom of their country objects of jealousy, victims of neglect. In an attempt to detail the effects which have flown from our independence, and which may hereafter ensue, it is difficult to be concise without seeming superficial or to be diffusive without becoming tedious--My observations will accordingly be general."

1789. Stillman, Samuel (1738-1807). An Oration, Delivered July 4th, 1789, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed by B. Edes & Son, 1789).
Stillman was minister of the First Baptist Church of Boston.
1790. Gray, Edward (1764-1810). An Oration, Delivered July 5, 1790. At the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed and sold by Samuel Hall, 1790).
According to Martin(115), Gray connects "America's divine destiny" with America's mission as the nation that sets examples for all the world.
1791. Crafts, Thomas, Jr. (1767-1798). An Oration, Pronounced July 4th, 1791: at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Celebration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Benjamin Russell, 1791).

Crafts' oration was presented at the Old Brick Meeting House. His address was noted as "animated" and "combined with the review of the events which led to the revolution, a happy brilliancy of fancy, and the genuine principles of political freedom." Columbian Centinel, 6 July 1791, 131.
1792. Blake, Joseph, Jr. (1766-1802). Oration, Pronounced July 4th, 1792; at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston im [sic] Commemoration of the anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed by Benjamin Russell, 1792).
Blake discusses the circumstances which led up to the declaring of independence and warns his listeners what factors need to be addressed if the new nation is to be successful. His oration was presented at the "old brick meeting house." It was described in The Mail; or, Claypoole's Daily Advertiser, 17 July 1792, 2, as "very pertinent and animated," and "was received with the utmost satisfaction and plaudits of a very brilliant and crowded audience."
1793. Adams, John Quincy (1767-1848). An Oration, Pronounced July 4th, 1793, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Celebration of the anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed by Benjamin Edes, 1793).
John Quincy Adams was the eldest son of John Adams. John Quincy gave other orations on the Fourth of July, one at the Capitol in Washington City in 1821, another at the groundbreaking ceremony of the C& O Canal, north of Georgetown, in 1828, another in Quincy, Massachusetts, in 1831, and yet another in Newburyport, Massachusetts, in 1837. The 1793 speech was reprinted in E. B. Williston, Eloquence of the United States. 5 vols. (Middletown, Conn.: E & H Clark, 1827).
1794. Phillips, John (1770-1823). An Oration, Pronounced July 4th, 1794, at the request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston; Printed and sold by Benjamin Edes, 1794).
Phillips was born in Boston, studied at Harvard and became a prominent attorney. In 1822, he was elected as Boston's first mayor. His oration was said to bear "the finest marks of intellectual vigor" and "extracts from it have found their way into the school-books as models of eloquence." "Two Reform Mayors of Boston," Bay State Monthly 3/4(September 1885): 251- 52. A local newspaper reported that Phillips' piece was "expressive of those sentiments which animated the people of the United States while contending against the British nation, in support of the liberties and independence of this country." Phillips presented his address in the First Church before the "Supreme Executive." Philadelphia Gazette and Universal Daily Advertiser, 11 July 1794, 3.
1795. Blake, George (1769-1841). An Oration Pronounced July 4th, 1795 at the Request of the Inhabitants of the town of Boston: in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed and sold by Benjamin Edes, 1795).
A Boston editor commented on Blake's address and thought it was excellent: "Not one oration, since that delivered by the great Hancock, on the 5th of March, '73, in the same House, for spirit, energy of style, and truth, can in any degree be compared with it" (Boston Gazette, 6 July 1795, as reported in Martin, 276).

About his presentation Blake said, "The event which happened on this day, the feelings, manners and principles which led to it, are the subject of our present contemplation--a subject in which is involved a history not more glorious to America, than it is humiliating and disgraceful to the proud nation with whom she contended--the same feelings which are agitated by the first impression of injury, which are heightened by an unwarrantable increase of the imposition, and which are turned to desperation when the injury becomes cruelty insufferable; such were the emotions which first propelled Americans to a contest with Britain."

1796. Lathrop, John, Jr. (1772-1820). An Oration, Pronounced July 4, 1796, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed and sold by Benjamin Edes, 1796).
Lathrop presented a Fourth of July oration in 1798 in Dedham, Massachusetts. An excerpt of this oration is printed in Robert Haven Schauffler, ed., Independence Day: Its Celebration, Spirit, and Significance as Related in Prose and Verse (New York: Moffat, Yard and Company, 1912), 52-53.
1797. Callender, John (1772-1833). An Oration, Pronounced July 4, 1797: at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed and sold by Benjamin Edes, 1797).
Callender opens his address with these words: "The ingenuity of man diligently searches for the authority of precedent, to sanction the propriety of a favorite measure; but the revolution which produced the chearful [sic] hilarity of this day is entitled to our grateful commemoration, not from a servile imitation of ancient customs, but from its own abstract and intrinsic merits. the preservation of our independence is intimately connected with a preservation of those sentiments and opinions which gave birth to it, and the experience of one and twenty years affords an ample conviction that the spirit which an imated [sic] our countrymen at the glorious epoch we celebrate, still warms our bosoms."

According to one newspaper, Callender's address, presented at the "old Brick Meeting House" was "eloquent, impassioned, and [a] national oration. It is vehemently, and from our knowledge of the ingenious orator deservedly praised." (City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 3 August 1797, 2.)

1798. Quincy, Josiah (1772-1864). An Oration Pronounced July 4, 1798, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: John Russell, 1798).
Quincy, a congressman, was born in Boston, graduated from Harvard in 1790. He was elected mayor of Boston in 1823, and in 1829 had been named president of Harvard, where he addressed curriculum reform of the institution. A comment from a contemporary editor about Quincy's address: "Mr. Quincy regards the present moment as too serious and critical to be passed over by him with the common place topics of congratulation and applause." Quincy compared the founders' ideals with his time and warns citizens about the perils of government. "An Oration Pronounced July 4th, 1798 . . . Monthly Magazine, and American Review (June 1799): 1, 3. A reporter for the Columbian Centinel (7 July 1798, 2) thought Quincy's oration "ranks among the most masterly productions, which the effervescence of patriotism, united to the amplest resources of genius, ever originated in any nation, or on any epocha. The elegant flights of its eloquence were attempered by the impressive energies of argument. While it presented a forcible and animating appeal to the passions--it irresistably imposed conviction on the understandings of his auditory. The honor which the Orator has reaped from the occasion, is only to be equalled by the service, which his oration has rendered to his country."
1799. Lowell, John, Jr. (1769-1840). An Oration, Pronounced July 4, 1799: At the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed by Manning & Loring, 1799).
Compares the French and American revolutions. For comment on this address, see "An Oration, Pronounced July 4th, 1799 . . . Monthly Magazine, and American Review (August 1799): 1, 5. According an article in Philadelphia Gazette & Universal Daily Advertiser, 12 July 1799, 3, President Adams "honoured the assembly with his presence."
1800. Hall, Joseph (1761-1848). An Oration, Pronounced July 4, 1800, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: From the Printing-Office of Manning & Loring, 1800).

The event took place at the Old South Meeting House.
1801. Paine, Charles (1775-1810). An Oration, Pronounced July 4, 1801, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Manning & Loring, 1801).
"This oration was decidedly of the first class of American eloquence. It was composed of solid materials, every where polished, and frequently burnished to splendor. The remote as well as immediate causes of our revolution, and the effects, which have flowed from it, were analysed and described with the chasteness of history. At the same time, those principles of restraint upon the will of individuals, and of modication in the powers of delegated authority, upon which are predicated the very existence of a popular government, were discussed and enforced in a style of masculine, mature and legitimate rhetoric, which at once impressed conviction, and animated taste. In the last section of his subject, the orator's manner was highly impressive. Accurate sentiment, and vigorous expression, were common to every part of it; but here the boldness of conception, the briliancy [sic] of imagination, the strength of reason, the invention of metaphor, were employed to discriminate political orthodoxy, from theoretic imposture, and to revive, from its philosophic languor, the tone of the national mind. American Intelligencer, 9 July 1801, 3.

Extracts of Paine's oration were printed in Washington Federalist, 22 July 1801, 2; Albany Centinel, 4 August 1801, 1. The event took place in the Old South Meeting House.

1802. Emerson, William (1769-1811). An Oration Pronounced July 5, 1802, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Manning & Loring, printers, 1802).
Clergyman, born in Concord, Massachusetts. Emerson graduated from Harvard in 1789 and in 1799 was pastor at the First Church in Boston where he remained his whole life. One of his sons was the noted literary figure, Ralph Waldo Emerson. His oration, presented at the Old South Meeting House, was described as "remarkably well calculated to please and encourage the party who are contending with President Jefferson, and his administration. With what ease and grace did he satirize the French government; and how well did the hearers relish his ready apology for doing it. . . His eulogiums on Washington, who has gone to the shades of the tomb, tho he yet lives in our hearts, on Adams, who has retired to his seat in Quincy, and on our present governor, then before him, were doubtless pertinent and just." Columbian Minerva, 13 July 1802, 3. Another newspaper reported: "The orator strictly complied with the vote of the town, and impartially portrayed the feelings, manners, and principles, which led to the declaration of independence; and pointed out the measures which alone can preserve and perpetuate the blessing. He contrasted in a striking manner, the American with the French revolution; and while he exhorted his hearers to a careful preservation of our union, as the ark of our safety, he did deserved instice to the wisdom, fidelity, and patriotism, which distinguished the administrations of Washington and Adams. The oration was received with lively applause. "American Independence," Newburyport Herald, 9 July 1802, 3. Yet another newspaper reported that "Rev. Mr. Emerson, is spoken of in the highest terms of approbation, and was received by a very crouded [sic] auditory, with lively applause." New-Hampshire Sentinel, 10 July 1802, 3.

Copy of oration printed in Ellis Sandoz, ed., Political Sermons of the American Founding Era, 1730-1805. 2 vols. (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1998), 2: 1555-569.

1803. Sullivan, William (1774-1839). An oration, Pronounced July 4th, 1803 at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston: in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed at the "Boston Weekly Magazine" office, by Gilbert and Dean, 1803).
Sullivan's oration was controversial, resulting in critical commentary in several newspapers and that commentary reprinted in others around the country.

Printed in a local newspaper: "Finding that the Oration lately pronounced by Mr. Sullivan, in Boston, was peculiarly obnoxious to the Democrats of that place, we were induced to suppose it must be a work of some political merit. We have read the Oration, and are not disappointed. To do justice to the author, it would be necessary to give it entire; but this would be injustice to the printer. We shall therefore confine ourselves to extracts. The address may be had of Mr. Emerson, Postmaster, in this town." Extracts in New-England Repertory, 13 July 1803, 1.

Another long description of Sullivan's oration begins with these sentiments: "The oration of Mr. Sullivan, on the 4th of July, we think will be characterized as one of the best compositions of the kind which has been given to the public. It will be admired for the richness, elegance, and classic purity, of the language; but still more so, for the very useful lessons which that language is employed to dress, drawn from the sources of ancient history, and the example of modern times." From the Salem Gazette as published in The Olio, 21 July 1803, 30. See also, City Gazette and Daily Advertiser, 28 July 1803, 2; Independent Chronicle, 28 July 1803, 1, et al.

1804. Danforth, Thomas (1774-1817). An Oration Pronounced July 4, 1804, at the Request of the Selectmen of the Town of Boston in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Russell and Cutler, 1804).

An extensive and scathing review was printed in "Miscellany," National Aegis, 1 August 1804, 4. The writer described the oration as "twenty pages of empty verbiage, disordered metaphors, half-formed sentences and undisciplined paragraphs."

Contrast that with this review from another newspaper: "We were very happy to hear, in this elegant and spirited production, so just, so awakening and so impressive an address to the public, on the present critical situation of our country. In taking a retrospective view of the progress of political society, the Doctor displayed an extensive acquaintance with history and a true discrimination of the causes which have so often demolished the firmest institutions of man. His recaputulation of the events which have marked the political progress or our country was interesting in the highest degree. His picture of the evils which now threaten the destruction of our short lived felicity was bold, correct and dignified." "Dr. Danforth's Oration," New Hampshire Sentinel, 21 July 1804, 1-2.

Another newspaper printed the following: "The sentiments, language and manner of delivery of the oration commanded and received the highest commendations. It evinced the correct politician, erudite scholar and zealous patriot." "National Jubilee," New-England Palladium, 6 July 1804, 2.

1805. Dutton, Warren (1774-1857). Oration, Pronounced July 4, 1805, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Commemoration of American Independence (Boston: A. Newell, printer, 1805).
The oration, presented at the Meeting House, was described as "spirited and well adapted" (New England Paladium, 5 July 1805, 2).
1806. Channing, Francis Dana.
According to C.W. Ernst, the oration by Channing was not printed. The address was presented at the Old South Meeting House and was described as a "spirited oration." "American Independence," The Repertory, 8 July 1806, 1.
1807. Thacher, Peter Oxenbridge (1776-1843). Oration Delivered Before the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, on the Thirty-First Anniversary of the Independence of the United States of America (Boston: Printed by Munroe & Francis, 1807).

1808. Ritchie, Andrew, Jr. (1782-1862). An Oration, Pronounced July 4, 1808 at the Request of the Selectmen of the Town of Boston in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: From the press of Russell & Cutler, 1808).

According to a scathing newspaper report,

The Repertory tells us that Mr. Ritchie deliverd an excellent Oration. So much the better for Mr. Ritchie! The Oration was doubtless federal, else it could not have been excellent, and it must have abused the President, else it could not have been federal, and it was delivered on the anniversary of independence, a fit federal occasion for abusing the government of our choice!

But what says Mr. Ritchie? After giving a most terrific description of Polyphenius Bonaparte, he turns to the blissful sight of England, struggling for the existence of freedom! This is an old story, but it is really a good one for the 4th of July! With what rapture can we, on that anniversary, contemplate England struggling for the existence of freedom. In this country, between the years 1774 and 1783, she freed 11,000 Americans from a life of torture on board the Jersey: she freed some of our land on the sea-board from the incumbrance of buildings; she freed, by the point of the bayonet, many of our old men from the fear of death, and she publicly offered to free, by way of halters, some of our best patriots, from the trouble of breathing. The declaration of independence, which must have been read, before citizen Ritchie declaimed, recites the struggles of England for the existence of freedom.

Since that time England has struggled for freedom in the East-Indies; the trial of Hastings will tell with what success. She has struggled for the freedom of the nations on the continent of Europe, till all of them, except Sweden, are wholly emancipated. She struggled for the freedom of John Pierce, and of the seamen on board the Chesapeake, and actually keeps, at her own expense, on board of her navy, the freedom of several thousands of American seamen.

England offered freedom to Constantinople, which was refused; but she actually gave freedom to the whole navy of Denmark, and released from their prisons of clay, four thousand souls of men, women and children, in the city of Copenhagen.

After such examplary struggles of freedom, with what joyful confidence can we repose on the bosom of our old mother England, who is sacrificing her own merchants, and starving her manufacturers, while she is pursuing the great work of emancipation!

England struggling for the existence of freedom! Great news this for the 4th of July, 1801! We live, we breathe, we are awake, and we hear the excellent man, Ritchie, proclaiming to us that England is struggling for the existence of freedom, and we must believe it, because it is part of an oration delivered in public, and printed. Were we told that the graves were giving up their dead, we might believe it, because such an event must sooner or later arrive; but to be told that England is struggling for the existence of freedom, this is more marvellous than all miracles, more incredible than all legends; it is known to be false by every man and woman, who knows any thing.

Shew us the nation on earth, to which England has not been an enemy; shew us any latitude on the ocean, where she has not tyranized. The intrigues and money of England have caused rivers of blood to flow on the continent of Europe, till Bonaparte has become grand master and legislator for the whole of them. And now since he has derived his mighty power from the stupidity and imbecility of England, we must be called to rely on the wooden walls of England, with all the contingencies of winds and waves, for the existence of our freedom!!!

This is talking like Americans, is it, on the 4th of July, a day set apart for a solemn recollection of our redemption from the galling yoke of England? Let federalists improve in such sort, such days; let federal papers enrich their columns with extracts from such orations, every real American will consider England as the universal and eternal enemy of freedom throughout the globe, and that our sole reliance for shelter during the tremendous conflicts of Europe, must be placed in the wisdom of an administration, which will not be entangled by the wiles of either of the contending powers. [American Mercury, 11 August 1808, 2.]

1809. Tudor, William, Jr. (1779-1830). An Oration Pronounced July 4, 1809, at the Request of the Selectmen of the Town of Boston in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed by Joshua Belcher, 1809).
Advertised by J. Belcher "and for sale at his Printing Office, over the Palladium Office, and at the Bookstores" in Independent Chronicle, 6 July 1809, 3.
1810. Townsend, Alexander. Oration, Delivered July the Fourth, 1810, at the Request of the Selectmen of Boston, on the Feelings, Manners, and Principles that Produced American Independence (Boston: John Eliot, 1810).

1811. Savage, James (1784-1873). An Oration Delivered July 4, 1811, at the Request of the Selectmen of Boston in Commemoration of American Independence (Boston: John Eliot, Jun., 1811).

One newspaper reported that his oration was "excellent and spirited" and "received the plaudits of a very numerous assemblage of both sexes." Columbian Centinel, 6 July 1811, 2.

1812. Pollard, Benjamin (1780-1836).

According to C.W. Ernst, the oration by Pollard was not printed.

Newspapers reported that "the audience, for about one hour, were delighted with a rich and powerful display of eloquence and patriotism." Boston Gazette, 6 July 1812, 2; New-England Palladium, 7 July 1812, 2.

Another newspaper described the oration in this way: "The oration of Mr. Pollard then succeeded; and the audience, for about one hour, were delighted with a rich and powerful display of eloquence and patriotism. He first made a rapid glance at the events of the revolutionary struggle, and the manners, feelings and principles of our forefathers; the difficulties which impeded the adoption of the Federal Constitution, and the success which attended the country, under the operation of the new government. He then considered the reasons which induced the Commercial States to enter into the compact; and proved that they had been systematically abandoned by the present administration; that the prosecution of commerce, the establishment of a naval force, and generally, the defence of the country, have not only been neglected, but absolutely discountenanced. He considered the system of commercial restrictions to have grown out of this adverse economy; and as a consequence of the whole, resulted the poverty, distress, degradation and war with which we are now afflicted. "Anniversary Celebration," Boston Gazette, 6 July 1812, 2.

1813. Livermore, Edward St. Loe (1762-1832). An Oration Delivered July the Fourth, 1813 at the Request of the Selectmen of Boston: in Commemoration of American Independence (Boston: printed by Chester Stebbins, 1813).
Delivered at the Old South Church. According to a local newspaper, Judge Livermore "repeated the old, worn out, smoke dried tale of French influence, and other things equally ridiculous. His address was so long and so tedious that the audience were in danger on Monday of dislocating their jaw bones with yawning. But yawning was not the only effects produced by the dull and drowsy strains of the Judge; it soporific effect was discernable in every direction. His Honor the Lieut. Governor (for His Excellency went to sleep at Northampton) appeared to us to be in a sweet slumber all the time. We say appeared, and had it not been in the Old South where he is Deacon, where we charitably suppose he never slept, we should swear that he was asleep; but we only say that he appeared so to be; but as for our worthy Councillor Cobb, we can swear for him. We envied him his comfortable nap; for he snored like the distant sound of a saw mill. Boston Patriot, 7 July 1813, 2; American Mercury, 20 July 1813, 2..
1814. Whitwell, Benjamin (1772-1825). An Oration Pronounced July 4, 1814, at the Request of the Selectmen of the Town of Boston in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Charles Callender, 1814).
A report in the Weekly Messenger (8 July 1814, 3) describes Whitwell's address as "a spirited, elegant and truly independent Oration." Another newspaper reported, however, that "the patience of the people of Boston was never more shamefully abused than on Monday last, the Fourth of July." Whitwell was characterized as a "country lawyer" with "British propensities," whose oration has brought disgust to his own party. Some excerpts are printed. The Yankee, 8 July 1814, 3.

1815. Shaw, Lemuel (1781-1861). An Oration Delivered at Boston, July 4, 1815 before the Supreme Executive of the Commonwealth, and the Municipal Authority and Citizens of the Town, in Commemoration of American Independence (Boston: From the press of John Eliot, 1815).

Shaw became Chief Justice of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts on August 31, 1830. His oration was described as "elegant, judicious and manly." The event took place at the Old South Meeting House. "Fourth of July," Boston Daily Advertiser, 6 July 1815, 2.
1816. Sullivan, George (1771-1838). An Oration Pronounced on the Fourth July, 1816, before the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston at the Request of the Selectmen (Boston: Printed by C. Stebbins, 1816).
Sullivan presented "an eloquent, animated and conciliatory oration." John Adams was in the audience. Rhode-Island American, and General Advertiser, 9 July 1816, 3.

Another newspaper reported that "George Sullivan, Esq., delivered the oration, at the Old South, with very great credit to himself and gratification to the public. Though the church was much crowded, he was dinstinctly heard in every part of it. He avoided party topics; and when this is done, the task of delivering this oration on the same theme, becomes every year more difficult." Boston Daily Advertiser, 6 July 1816, 2.

1817. Channing, Edward Tyrrel (1790-1856). An Oration, Delivered July 4, 1817, at the Request of the Selectmen of the Town of Boston in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Printed by Joseph T. Buckingham, 1817).
Educator, lawyer, born in Newport, Rhode Island. Channing graduated from Harvard in 1819. In 1818-19, Channing was editor for the North American Review. As a contributor to the journal, his style has been described as "remarkable for its strength and purity and a severe critical taste, which qualities enabled him to exert a great influence over an entire generation of prominent men, whose literary education he directed in his pedagogical capacity and through the press." (National Cyclopaedia of American Biography [1906] 13:150-51).

According to a newspaper report, "the oration by E.T. Channing Esq. was an elegant performance, and the manner of its reception showed that a man of talents is not obliged even on so trite a subject, and under so discouraging circumstances, to purchase applause by the sacrifice of his own opinions, or by deserting his subject for popular topics of declamation" (The Repertory, 8 July 1817, 4).
Another newspaper reported that Channing "discussed the peculiar character of our ancestors, and of the revolutionary struggle which the audience he addressed had assembled to commemorate. A philosophical spirit, much acuteness of thought and fertility of imagination, and chaste, accurate and felicitous language, raised the character of Mr. Channing’s discourse above that of most orations which have been delivered upon similar occasions. The pointed allusion and address to the President of the United States was elegant, and evinced a spirit of the independence, candour and decorum." "Boston Celebration of the Fourth of July," Washington City Weekly Gazette, 12 July 1817, 685.

1818. Gray, Francis Calley (1790-1856). Oration, Pronounced July 4, 1818, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Charles Callender, 1818).

Gray's oration was presented at the Old South Church. A newspaper reported that it focused "on the merits of the revolution, and the peculiar character of our fathers, who conducted the same. It was an eloquent appeal to the heart, as well as to the understanding of his hearers; and forcibly demonstrated the importance of continuing to cherish the same principles which led to and have since secured our independence." "Fourth of July," Dedham Gazette, 10 July 1818, 3.

1819. Dexter, Franklin (1793-1857). An Oration Delivered July 4, 1819, at the Request of the Selectmen of the Town of Boston in Commemoration of the Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: Joseph T. Buckingham, 1819).

For a lengthy review and criticism of Dexter's address, see the unsigned article "A Candid and Cautionary Criticism on Mr. Dexter's Oration" (Independent Chronicle & Boston Patriot, 17 July 1819, 4) in which the writer refers to Dexter's remarks as "chilling" and "inanimate language." The article is summarized as "We are not disposed to censure the orator as not having a full idea of the blessings of our independence, but merely to prevent a repetition of expressions, which in future may have a tendency to lessen our energies on this anniversary."

However, the Boston Weekly Messenger, 8 July 1819, 615, stated that "it is unnecessary to say, that the oration, by Mr. Dexter, was an able and eloquent performance."

Another newspaper reported: "Mr. Dexter expressed his opinion of the light in which the anniversary of American Independence ought to be regarded. We think the oration was precisely what it should be for the occasion. It did not depend on popular feeling, or on topics of modern excitement, for its effect; its excellency consisted in bringing forcibly to the minds of his audience, the memory of the patriotic, learned, virtuous, and intrepid dead; and in awakening the sentiments, which ought to govern our acts, in relation to those who are yet to live." Pittsfield Sun, 14 July 1819, 3.

1820. Lyman, Theodore, Jr. (1792-1849). An Oration Delivered at the Request of the Selectmen of the Town of Boston: on the Anniversary of American Independence, in the Year 1820 (Boston: Printed by J. T. Buckingham, No. 17, Cornhill, 1820).

Lyman discussed "the 'feelings, principles and manners,' which led to the great event celebrated" (Columbian Centinel, 4 July 1820, 2). An excerpt from his oration was published in Hillsboro Telegraph, 15 July 1820, 3.
1821. Loring, Charles Greely (1794-1867). An Oration, Pronounced on the Fourth of July, 1821, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Commemoration of the Anniversary of National Independence (Boston: Published by Charles Callender, 1821).

1822. Gray, John Chipman (1793-1881). An Oration, Pronounced on the Fourth of July, 1822, at the Request of the Inhabitants of the Town of Boston, in Commemoration of the Anniversary of National Independence (Boston: Published by Charles Callender, 1822).

Gray's oration was advertised for sale by Charles Callender, 25 School Street, at 12 1/2 cents per copy. Boston Commercial Gazette, 18 July 1822, 3.
1823. Curtis, Charles Pelham (1792-1864). An Oration, Delivered on the Fourth of July, 1823, in Commemoration of American Independence, before the Supreme Executive of the Commonwealth, and the City Council and Inhabitants of the City of Boston (Boston: J. W. Ingraham, 1823).
Curtis predicted that Cuba would be annexed by the U.S. as a new state (Martin, 184).
1824. Bassett, Francis (1786-1875). An Oration, Delivered on Monday, the Fifth of July, 1824, in Commemoration of American Independence, before the Supreme Executive of the Commonwealth, and the City Council and Inhabitants of the City of Boston (Boston: Wells and Lilly, 1824).
"The oration before us is a chaste and sensible production, but we should think rather modeled for the press than for declamation. Mr. Bassett is a man of taste and talent, with a fine voice and person, and a ready elocution, but of too delicate a spirit for a flaming fourth of July declaimer, or an imposing stump orator."

The writer provides excerpts from the speech. "Mr. Bassett’s Oration," Boston Commercial Gazette, 12 July 1824, 2.

1825. Sprague, Charles (1792-1875). An Oration, Delivered on Monday, Fourth of July, 1825: in Commemoration of American Independence, before the Supreme Executive of the Commonwealth, and the City Council and Inhabitants of the City of Boston (Boston: True and Greene, city printers, 1825).

Delivered at the Old South Church. As reported in a newspaper column, "we consider Mr. Sprague's oration as an eloquent performance, and one, that, if tolerably well delivered, would produce great effect. . . .It indicates talent and imagination. . . the language is occasionally extravagant, and the metaphors sometimes scarcely in good taste" ("An Oration, Delivered on Monday, Fourth of July, 1825 . . . United States Literary Gazette [1 August 1825]: 353). Sprague's Fourth of July poem, "Eighty Years Ago," was printed in the Boston Courier, 7 July 1856 and New York Times, 8 July 1856, 3.

According to another newspaper, "Mr. Sprague’s oration was a brilliant effort of genius, discrimination and taste. His exordium to ‘friends and fathers,’ in which he gave a passing tribute to the survivors of our revolutionary band, although pronounced in a low tone of voice, reached the hearts of all who heard it. To the public, Mr. Sprague is an unpracticed orator, and it is not surprising he was repressed by a first essay before a public assembly. To them he was known only as a poet, and they little imagined that the same mind would sparkle with equal luster in prose. But it was most eloquently alive to the occasion—it administered a brand to the back of calumny—a balsam to the heart of the suffering patriot, and a pillow to withered limbs and bleached locks. Nor was the muse forgotten. The whole oration, in fact, glowed with the soul of poetry—while several lines of heroic verse, agreeably reminded us of the author’s happiest efforts. It is not in our power to recall any distinct passage of this oration, yet there was one that struck us an eminently beautiful. We allude to the dashing and foaming of the waves of the tempestuous sea of party, so often succeeded by the rainbow, betokening there was no danger. The allusion operated like electricity, and produced the most rapturous applause. We are glad to learn that this oration will in a few days be given to the public." "Fourth of July," Boston Commercial Gazette, 7 July 1825, 2.

Sprague’s literary merits are described in this biography, “Charles Sprague,” Eastern Argus, 19 February 1828, 1.

1826. Quincy, Josiah (1772-1864). An Oration, Delivered on Tuesday, the Fourth of July, 1826, It Being the Fiftieth Anniversary of American Independence, before the Supreme Executive of the Commonwealth and the City Council and Inhabitants of the City of Boston. Delivered at the Request, and Printed by Order of the City Council (Boston: True and Greene, 1826).
The oration was given in the Old South Church, with an "excessively full" audience in attendance (Boston Daily Advertiser, 6 July 1826).

Another newspaper reported that “Of Mr. Quincey’s [sic] it is said in the Boston papers, that it was written offhand—on a short notice, and amidst a multiplicity of cares. The thoughts, the sentiments, the classical allusions, the historical facts were by no means off hand—they were the speculations of a statesman—a scholar, and a patriot that had lain storing in his mind from the time of his great Father’s first instruction, to the end of many years of study, experience and observation.” Connecticut Mirror, 31 July 1826, 3.

Another newspaper clarifies the note above that Quincy's address was written on short notice. Originally, a "Rev. Mr. Ware" had been asked to deliver the municipal oration in 1826, but being "much indisposed that he will probably not be able to deliver the oration," as reported in the Boston Daily Advertiser and reprinted in the New Hampshire Sentinel, 23 June 1826, 3.

1827. Mason, William Powell (1791-1867). An Oration Delivered Wednesday, July 4, 1827, in Commemoration of American Independence: before the Supreme Executive of the Commonwealth, and the City Council and Inhabitants of the City of Boston (Boston: From the press of Nathan Hale City printer, 1827).
Graduated from Harvard in 1811, Mason studied law and was admitted to the bar. He delivered his oration in the Old South Church. The Salem Gazette, 6 July 1827, 2, reported that "it was an able performance, and our privileges and duties were justly stated."
1828. Sumner, Bradford (1782-1855). An Oration Delivered Friday, July 4, 1828, in Commemoration of American Independence, before the Supreme Executive of the Commonwealth, and the City Council and Inhabitants of the City of Boston (Boston: From the press of Nathan Hale city printer, 1828).

1829. Austin, James Trecothick (1784-1870). Oration Delivered on the Fourth of July, 1829, at the Celebration of Independence, in the City of Boston (Boston: John H. Eastburn, 1829).

Lawyer, politician, and author who had given an oration on July 4, 1815, in Lexington, Massachusetts. Austin was born in Boston and graduated from Harvard in 1802. He was a member of the state legislature and in 1828 was in charge of determining the boundary line between Massachusetts and Connecticut east of the Connecticut River. From 1822-43, he was attorney-general of Massachusetts. Austin wrote a number of books, including The Life of Elbridge Gerry, with Contemporary Letters (1828-29).

According to one newspaper report: "This was a production of no ordinary merit. It developed the habits and character of our ancestors the Pilgrims, and their immediate successors, and spoke of the causes which led to the revolution, and the establishment on a firm foundation of our Independence, with an energy and in a style of eloquence, which we have rarely witnessed. He enlarged, with conscious pride, upon the stern and independent character of our fathers prior to the declaration of '76, and upon the early and efficient part taken by Massachusetts, in the contest for emancipation-- how she began and stood forth unaided and alone, the bold vindicator of our rights. He concluded, by considering the attitude, in which New-England now stands, relative to the National Administration, and reproved in no measured terms the present system of pretended 'reform' of the Government." "At Boston," Farmers' Cabinet, 11 July 1829, 3.

1830. Everett, Alexander Hill (1790-1847). An Oration: Delivered at the Request of the City Government, before the Citizens of Boston, on the 5th of July, 1830 (Boston: Press of John H. Eastburn, City printer, 1830).
The Baltimore Patriot, 23 July 1830, 2, published an excerpt of Everett's address in which the orator talks about Charles Carroll, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence. Another excerpt published in the Rhode-Island American, Statesman and Providence Gazette, 9 August 1830, 1, focuses on what Everett had to say about John Adams. Sections of the oration were also printed in the Republican Star and General Advertiser, 10 August 1830, 1. The oration was delivered at the Old South Church.
1831. Palfrey, John Gorham (1796-1881). An Oration Pronounced before the Citizens of Boston on the Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, July 4th, 1831 (Boston: Press of John H. Eastburn, 1831).
Presented at the Old South Meeting House. Out of "the multitude of orations pronounced on the late celebration of independence," a Boston editor reported that Palfrey's presentation was "the best immeasurably the best that we have seen. . . . the style of Mr. Palfrey's oration is plain, familiar, unaffected, and appropriate. Its politics are sound and practicable." New England Magazine 1/2 (August 1831): 172-73. According to Martin (237), Palfrey "regretted the intellectual dependence of Americans upon England. By allowing England to supply our literature, . . . we give her an opportunity 'of an imperial sway over our spirits.'" It was reported in the National Intelligencer (11 July 1831, 3) that Palfrey's presentation was "a masterly and very appropriate oration."
1832. Quincy, Josiah, Jr. (1802-1882). An Oration Delivered July 4, 1832 before the City Council and Inhabitants of Boston (Boston: John H. Eastburn, 1832).

1833. Prescott, Edward Goldsborough (1804-1844). An Oration: Delivered before the Citizens of Boston, on the Fifty Eighth [sic] Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: John H. Eastburn, City printer, 1833).

Note: Prescott gave an oration in Boston on July 4, 1832, "before the officers of the militia, and members of the volunteer companies of Boston" (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, printer, 1832).
1834. Fay, Richard Sullivan (1806-1865). Oration on the Fifty-Eight Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, printer, 1834).

1835. Hillard, George Stillman (1808-1879). An Oration Pronounced before the Inhabitants of Boston, July the Fourth, 1835, in Commemoration of American Independence (Boston: Press of J. H. Eastburn, City printer, 1835.

Hillard was born in Machias, Maine, and graduated from Harvard in 1828. In 1833, he began co-editing the Unitarian weekly paper, The Christian Register. In 1850, he was elected state senator. Hillard was the author of several books. An editor for a magazine had this to say about his oration: "This is a beautiful production. The thoughts are appropriate, instructive and pointed; the language is finished, imaginative and rich with all the graces of the accomplished writer; the spirit of the oration is of the highest and purest order breathing the strongest devotion to the cause of religion, morals and our country" (The New-England Magazine 9/8 (August 1835): 142). Another newspaper reported that "the oration by Geo. S. Hillard, Esq. was an eloquent and interesting one, and was heard with much pleasure by a very numerous audience." Farmers' Cabinet, 17 July 1835, 2.

Richard Cobden was in the Old South Church listening to the oration and mentioned that it was "an admirable composition" and "observed that only those portions of this were loudly applauded which conveyed compliments to the ever [?] craving nationality of the audience." The American Diaries of Richard Cobden. Ed. Elizabeth Hoon Cawley. (New York: Greenwood Press, 1969), 114.

1836. Kinsman, Henry Willis (1803-1859). An Oration, Pronounced before the Inhabitants of Boston, July the Fourth, 1836, in Commemoration of the Sixtieth Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, City printer, 1836).

1837. Chapman, Jonathan. An Oration Delivered before the Citizens of Boston, on the Sixty First Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1837 (Boston: John H. Eastburn, City printer, 1837).

Chapman was elected mayor of Boston in 1840.
1838. Winslow, Hubbard (1799-1864). The Means of the Perpetuity and Prosperity of Our Republic: An Oration, Delivered by Request of the Municipal Authorities, of the City of Boston, July 4, 1838, in the Old South Church, in Celebration of American Independence (Boston: John H. Eastburn, City printer, 1838).

1839. Austin, Ivers James (1808-1889). Oration Delivered by Request of the City Authorities, before the City of Boston, on the Sixty Third Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1839 (Boston: John H. Eastburn, 1839).

"The oration was delivered by Ivers J. Austin, Esq. It was an eloquent production, and was listened to with much pleasure and attention by the audience present." New-Bedford Mercury, 12 July 1839, 1.
1840. Power, Thomas (1786-1868). An Oration Delivered by Request of the City Authorities before the Citizens of Boston, on the Sixty-Fourth Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1840 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, City printer, 1840).
Power's oration was referred to as "a sound and able discourse." Farmers' Cabinet, 10 July 1840, 2.
1841. Curtis, George Ticknor (1812-1894). The True Uses of American Revolutionary History: An Oration Delivered before the Authorities of the City of Boston, on Monday, the Fifth of July, 1841, being the Day Set Apart for the Celebration of the Sixty-Fifth Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, 1841).
Lawyer, historian who was born in Watertown, Massachusetts, and graduated from Harvard in 1832. At the time that Curtis presented this Independence Day oration, he was a Whig in the Massachusetts House of Representatives (1840-43). Curtis presented another Fourth of July municipal oration in 1862 (see entry below).
1842. Mann, Horace (1796-1859). An Oration Delivered before the Authorities of the City of Boston, July 4, 1842 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, City printers, 1842).
As reported in Martin (268), Louise H. Tharp, Mann's biographer, estimated that 17,000 copies of one edition and 10,000 copies of another edition were printed. There were no less than 5 editions published.
1843. Adams, Charles Francis (1807-1886). An Oration, Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, in Faneuil Hall, on the Sixty-Seventh Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, July 4th, 1843 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, City printer, 1843).
"The Oration by Charles Francis Adams, Esq., son of the venerable ex-President, J.Q. Adams, more than realized the expectations of the audience. The position occupied by the young Mr. Adams, was a most trying, and yet a most interesting one. There he stood-- in the old Cradle of Liberty--with the sculptured form of his grandsire above him, and the yet living form of his distinguished parent ar his side, to speak to this generation of that liberty for which his patriot sires had toiled so hardly--and to speak also as became the representative of such an ancestry! How difficult for any man, not gifted beyond his fathers, (the most gifted of their race) to do justice to that exalted position. Yet Mr. Adams acquitted himself most honorably, and won much applause for his manly and vigorous thoughts, his graceful and perspicuous language, and the well managed appeals to the patriotic feelings of his audience. Every body noticed--we doubt not-- a most striking resemblance between father and son, not only in respect to personal appearance, the cast and expression of countenance, but also the tones of voice, the gestures, and many other points that mark the man and the orator. The father and son are both of an exceedingly nervous temperament, and the son employs the same sharp, twitching gestures that his father does, and often snaps off his words with a backward slap of the hands, and a snarling, gutteral voice, just as the ex-President does at the close of his most animated passages. There was also, not a little of the independent tone of thought, which has marked the father, and the grandfather, in this Oration--some of which received much, and some a doubtful applause. Still, it was a vigorous, interesting, and well-finished production, far better than the average of such effusions, and was delivered in a distinct and forcible manner." Farmers' Cabinet, 14 July 1843, 2.
1844. Chandler, Peleg Whitman (1816-1889). The Morals of Freedom: An Oration Delivered before the Authorities of the City of Boston, July 4, 1844 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, city printer, 1844).
A local editor reported: "The author of this excellent discourse, one of the most distinguished among the young lawyers of Boston, has done honor to himself, and justice to the occasion, by the manly tone and style of his address. The promptings of national vanity, and the claims of an exaggerated patriotism, have been equally set aside by him, for the teachings of wisdom and truth." North American Review 59/125 (October 1844): 502. Under the title "Self Government. An Extract from Mr. Chandler's Fourth of July oration at Boston, 1844" was published in Farmers' Cabinet, 8 August 1844, 1.
1845. Sumner, Charles (1811-1874). The True Grandeur of Nations: An Oration Delivered before the Authorities of the City of Boston, July 4, 1845 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, City printer, 1845; American Peace Society, 1845).
This statesman graduated from Harvard and was active as a orator in the movement for outlawing war and was equally outspoken against slavery. Sumner spent much of his political career in Congress serving as a senator representing Massachusetts. His address represents one of the most important documents of the pacifist movement, albeit one which garnered considerable criticism. Sumner condemned war saying that military forces cost more money than the commerce they were to protect; Christianity outlawed war and that war would precipitate the downfall of morality. A Boston editor reported years later about his Independence Day address: "Charles Sumner delivered . . . an oration on Peace, which provoked much hostile criticism; and on the next succeeding anniversary of American Independence, Fletcher Webster delivered an oration on War, which was designed to show that there are cases 'where war, with all its woes, must be endured'" (Charles Cowley, "Colonel Fletcher Webster," Bay State Monthly 1/3 [March 1884]: 145). Years later an editor of a magazine recalled what Sumner told him about that day: "Peace among the nations has been the great idea and purpose of my life. When a young man, and having no expectation of, or aspiration for public life, I was prevailed upon by the city authorities of Boston to accept an invitation to pronounce the 4th of July oration. I determined to select a theme worthy of the occasion, and worthy of myself, and I chose 'The True Grandeur of Nations'" ("Charles Sumner," The Advocate of Peace 5/4 [April 1874]: 28). For a criticism of Sumner's oration, see Boston Evening Transcript, 5 July 1845.
1846. Webster, Fletcher (1813-1862). An Oration Delivered before the Authorities of the City of Boston in the Tremont Temple, July 4, 1846 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, City printer, 1846).
Webster's oration was a response to Sumner's address the year prior. Webster argued for the lawfulness of war and that it was the duty of citizens to obey the government in these matters. According to a newspaper report, "Mr. Webster's oration before the city government was a good one, full of plain practical sentiments, which appealed to the honest common sense of the audience, and met with a hearty and often an enthusiastic response." Farmers' Cabinet, 9 July 1846, 3.
1847. Cary, Thomas Greaves (1791-1859). An Oration Delivered before the Authorities of the City of Boston, at the Celebration of the Declaration of Independence: July 5, 1847 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, City printer, 1847).

1848. Giles, Joel. Practical Liberty. An Oration Delivered before the City Authorities of Boston in the Tremont Temple, July 4, 1848 (Boston: Eastburn's press, 1848).

1849. Greenough, William Whitwell (1818-1899). The Conquering Republic. An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston, July 4, 1849 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, City printer, 1849).

Greenough served on the Boston City Council (1847-49) and was trustee of the Boston Public Library (1856-88).
1850. Whipple, Edwin Percy (1819-1886). Washington and the Principles of the Revolution: An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston, at the Celebration of the Declaration of American Independence, July 4, 1850 (Boston: Ticknor, Reed and Fields, 1850; J. H. Eastburn, City printer, 1850).
Whipple, a critic, essayist, and lecturer. According to one editor, compared to other orations that year, Whipple's was "the most racy and vigorous of any of them. . . .He attempts to place the intellectual character of Washington in a brighter light than it has usually been regarded. He carries his point by force of argument, rather than by a gush of enthusiasm. It is a pleasant surprise to find so hackneyed a theme treated with so much wisdom and originality" (Southern Literary Messenger 16/10 (October 1850): 591). According to another account, "As an orator, . . . his style of delivery is exhilaratingly piercing and inspiring, and though quiet, is withal very peculiar and original" ("Edwin Percy Whipple," Graham's American Monthly Magazine of Literature, Art and Fashion 42/4 [April 1853]: 448- 55).
1851. Russell, Charles Theodore. An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston, July 4, 1851 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, city printer, 1851).
Russell discusses the meaning of the day, the colonists who settled in their new land, events leading up to the declaring of independence and the rationale for "throwing off British allegiance," the resulting government, the Constitution, and the importance of "Christian benevolence" bestowed by God.
1852. King, Thomas Starr (1824-1864). The Organization of Liberty on the Western Continent: An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston, at the Celebration of the Seventy-Sixth Anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence, July 5, 1852 (Boston: Rockwell and Churchill, City printers, 1892[sic]).
Lecturer and Universalist minister. King was born in New York City but spent his youth in Massachusetts. He pursued theological study and was named minister of the Hollis Street Unitarian Church in Boston in 1848. In 1860 King moved to California where he helped establish Unitarianism there. Apparently some 1,500 copies of this oration were printed (Martin, 268).
1853. Bigelow, Timothy. An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston, July 4, 1853 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, printer, 1853). Oration presented at the Old South Church. Additional information in "The Celebration Yesterday," Boston Evening Transcript, 5 July 1853, 2.
Edward Everett, the popular orator who himself had presented an oration in Boston's Faneuil Hall that day had garnered a copy of Bigelow's address and commented on the presentation and Bigelow's principal theme at a dinner later that day: Everett "styled it [Bigelow's oration] a manly, ingenious, fervid discourse, rising far above the common-place eloquence customary on such occasions, and throwing new light upon its theme. It was a smoothly-written oration, and one or two paragraphs were admirably composed. But it was too florid-too long, and not capable of bearing a criticism, when viewed as a whole. It showed, however, that its author had thought out several chapters of a Philosophy of American History. In his fine contrast between America and other countries, he neglected to allude to those points on which we have an immaterial superiority." ("Massachusetts: The Fourth in Boston," New York Times, 7 July 1853, 3.) See also, "Mr. Everett's Remarks on the 4th," Farmer's Cabinet, 14 July 1853, 2.

Of note, Bigelow made mention of the death of Daniel Webster, one of the nation's most popular orators: "But though the republic is safe even when the great citizens are removed, we cannot forget today the death, a few months since, of her greatest statesman. The mountains of New Hampshire gave Daniel Webster to America, and his character and conduct always bore the colossal imprint of his birthplace."

1854. Stone, Andrew Leete (1815-1892). An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston: at the Celebration of the Seventy-Eighth Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1854 (Boston: J. H. Eastburn, City printer, 1854).
Stone condemns the fugitive slave law.
1855. Miner, Alonzo Ames (1814-1895). An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston: at the Celebration of the Seventy-Ninth Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1855 (Boston: Moore & Crosby, city printers, 1855).

1856. Parker, Edward Griffin (1825-1868). The Lesson of '76 to the Men of '56: An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston, at the Celebration of the Eightieth Anniversary of American Independence, July 4, 1856 (Boston: G. C. Rand & Avery, city printers, 1856).

1857. Alger, William Rounseville (1822-1905). The Genius and Posture of America: an Oration Delivered before the Citizens of Boston, July 4, 1857 (Boston: J. E. Farwell and Company, 1864).

Clergyman, born in Freetown, Massachusetts. Rounseville graduated from the Harvard Divinity School in 1847. After a pastorship at the Mount Pleasant Congregational Society in Roxbury, he was installed at the Bullfinch Street Society in Boston. Rounseville's oration included his anti-slavery views regarding the slave power in the South and its upholders in the North. According to the National Cyclopaedia of American Biography (1896), Boston's "board of aldermen refused to pass the customary vote of thanks [for the oration], but seven years later, in 1864, the vote was passed." There were 5 editions of this oration published.
1858. Holmes, John Somers. An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston, July 5, 1858 (Boston: G. C. Rand & Avery, city printers, 1858).

1859. Sumner, George (1817-1863). An Oration Delivered before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston, July 4, 1859 (Boston: Rockwell and Churchill, City printers, 1859).

There were 3 editions of this orations published. Sumner's address caused such a furor that the Boston City Council immediately adjourned to a closed room and deliberated whether to send the orator a "vote of thanks" for giving the address. Sumner's views as "a well-known sympathizer with the European Republicans abroad, and with the American Republicans at home" were not received well. In addition, according to a newspaper report, Sumner spoke in "disrespect" of Chief Justice of the U.S. Roger Brooke Taney. ("Boston Thunders," New York Times, 13 July 1859, 4.)
1860. Everett, Edward (1794-1865). Oration Delivered before the City Authorities of Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1860 (Boston: G. C. Rand & Avery, City printers, 1860).
Printed also in "Mr. Everett's Oration," New York Times, 7 July 1860, 1-2; Living Age 66/844 (4 August 1860): 286-96; National Intelligencer, 11 July 1860, 2.
1861. Parsons, Theophilus (1797-1882). An Oration Delivered on the Fourth of July, 1861: before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston (Boston: J. E. Farwell & Co., printers, 1861).
Parsons, a lawyer and author, was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts. In 1825 he established the United States Literary Gazette and later taught law at Harvard. Throughout his life he produced numerous legal writings. In his oration, Parsons discussed the value of self-government and the nation's Constitution.
1862. Curtis, George Ticknor (1812-1894). An Oration; Delivered on the Fourth of July 1862, before the Municipal Authorities of the City of Boston (Boston: J. E. Farwell & Co., Printers to the city, 1862).
Curtis gave a Boston municipal oration in 1841 (see entry above). Curtis represented Dred Scott before the Supreme Court in 1856-57. An excerpt was printed in Farmers' Cabinet, 24 July 1862, 1.
1863. Holmes, Oliver Wendell. Oration Delivered before the City Authorities of Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1863 (Boston: J. E. Farwell & Co., Printers to the city, 1863; Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1863).

1864. Russell, Thomas (1825-1887). Oration Delivered before the City Authorities of Boston on the Fourth of July, 1864 (Boston: J. E. Farwell, 1864).

1865. Manning, Jacob Merrill. Peace under Liberty: Oration Delivered before the City Authorities of Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1865 (Boston: J. E. Farwell & Co., printers, 1865).

Clergyman, born in Greenwood, New York. In 1854 Manning was pastor of a Congregational Church at Medford, Massachusetts, and in 1857, became assistant pastor of Old South Church in Boston. An excerpt of the oration was printed in Farmers' Cabinet, 13 July 1865, 1.
1866. Lothrop, Samuel Kirkland (1804-1886). Oration Delivered before the City Authorities of Boston on the Fourth of July, 1866 (Boston: A. Mudge & Son, 1866).
Lothrop continued the Fourth of July tradition of hailing George Washington as one of the greatest figures of modern times: "the more I contemplate human nature . . . the more the character of Washington, in its glorious beauty, in the august sublimity of its splendid combinations, looms up before my imagination . . . as the grandest to be found in the authentic records of our race, save those records, short and simple, that contain the glorious gospel of the Son of God" (Martin, 103).
1867. Hepworth, George Hughes (1833-1902). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, July 4, 1867 (Boston: A. Mudge & Son, City printers, 1867).
Clergyman and journalist, born in Boston. Hepworth graduated from Harvard in 1853 and assumed a number of pastorships. By 1857 he was associated with the Church of the Unity in Boston, later getting involved in the Civil War as an aide to General Bank's command in Louisiana. He then returned to Boston where he founded a preparatory school for Unitarian ministers. By 1880 Hepworth was working to raise money for the Irish famine fund.
1868. Eliot, Samuel (1821-1898). The Functions of a City: An Oration before the City authorities of Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1868 (Boston: A. Mudge & Son, 1868).
Sixth president (1860-64) of Trinity College, Hartford, Connecticut. Eliot was born in Boston and graduated from Harvard in 1839. From 1866 to 1872, he was "overseer" of Harvard University and in 1868 elected president of the American Social Science Association. Among Eliot's books is Passages from the History of Liberty (1847).
1869. Morton, Ellis Wesley (d.1874). An Oration Delivered before the City Authorities of Boston: on the Fifth of July, 1869, in Celebration of the Ninety-Third Anniversary of American Independence (Boston: A. Mudge & Son, City printers, 1869).

1870. Everett, William (1839-1910). An Oration before the City Authorities of Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1870 (Boston: A. Mudge & Sons, printers, 1870).

1871. Sargent, Horace Binney (1821-1908). An Oration before the City Authorities of Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1871 (Boston: Rockwell & Churchill, City printers, 1871).

1872. Adams, Charles Francis, Jr. (1835-1915). An Oration before the City Authorities of Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1872 (Boston: Rockwell & Churchill, City printers, 1872).

One of the favorite orations of the nineteenth century, Adams' piece received a favorable review in the Springfield Republican, 6 July 1872.
1873. Ware, John Fothergill Waterhouse (1818-1881). An Oration before the City Authorities of Boston, on the Fourth of July, 1873 (Boston: Rockwell & Churchill, City printers, 1873).

1874. Frothingham, Richard (1812-1880). Oration Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston, in Music Hall, July 4, 1874 (Boston: Rockwell & Churchill, printers, 1874).

Historian, born in Charlestown, Massachusetts. Published a number of books, including History of Charlestown (1848) and The Rise of the Republic of the United States (1881). In this oration, Frothingham discussed the growth and prosperity of Boston, historic events leading up to the Revolution and the issue of slavery and that it was not abolished by the country's founders.
1875. Clarke, James Freeman (1810-1888). Oration Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boson, in Music Hall, July 5, 1875 (Boston: Rockwell and Churchill, city printers, 1875).
Unitarian minister. Clarke considered his oration "a kind of preparatory lecture for the great feast to be held next year in Philadelphia." He dealt with "the worth of republican institutions" and that religious institutions are best left to the support of "the will of the people." Clarke answers the question, "Can the people of any country govern themselves?"
1876. Winthrop, Robert Charles (1809-1894). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston: On the One Hundredth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1876 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1876); Oration on the Centennial Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence Delivered in the Music Hall, at the Request of the City Government, Boston, 4 July, 1876 (Boston: J. Wilson and Son, 1876).
Winthrop was elected to the Massachusetts house of representatives in 1834, secretary of state in 1850, and for many years was president of the Massachusetts Historical Society. Winthrop was a frequent orator, most of which were commemorative and historical. For example, he spoke at the laying of the cornerstone of the Washington Monument in 1848. According to one contemporary account, "it is, however, as orator that Winthrop's fame will be most lasting. . . . His style was stately and often highly rhetorical" (Frederic Bancroft, "The Late Robert C. Winthrop," Harper's Weekly 1 December 1894, 1135). This speech was reprinted in Selim Peabody, American Patriotism (New York: American Book Exchange, 1880).
1877. Warren, William Wirt (1834-1880). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, on the One Hundred and First Anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence, July 4, 1877 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1877).

1878. Healy, Joseph (1849-1880). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, on the One Hundred and Second Anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence, July 4, 1878 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1878).

1879. Lodge, Henry Cabot (1850-1924). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, on the One Hundred and Third Anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence, July 4, 1879 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1879).

Senator and historian born in Boston and graduated from Harvard in 1871. In 1878 Lodge, a republican, was elected to the Massachusetts General Court. An editor for a popular newspaper summarized the content of Lodge's oration: "The oration is a comprehensive view of our national achievements, and of our national perils and duties. Mr. Lodge pleads warmly for the careful cultivation of the sentiment of State rights. Two principles will surely save us reverence for the Constitution, and careful maintenance of the State-rights principle. Mr. Lodge's warning against the strife of classes is not less timely and wise, and his oration is as excellent in literary form as in its weight of suggestion." "Echoes of the Fourth of July," Harper's Weekly, 27 September 1879.
1880. Smith, Robert Dickson (1838-1888). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, on the One Hundred and Fourth Anniversary of American Independence, July 5, 1880 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1880).
According to Ernst, the oration is "on Samuel Adams, a statue of whom, by Miss Anne Whitney, had just been completed for the City. A photograph of the statue is added."
1881. Warren, George Washington. Our Republic Liberty and Equality Founded on Law. Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, in the Boston Theatre, on the One Hundred and Fifth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1881 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1881).
The oration was also printed in the Boston Evening Transcript, 5 July 1881, 6.

Warren began his oration with his sentiments regarding the shooting of President James Garfield. "This Anniversary of American Independence, this national holiday, which should be an occasion of national joy and exultation, has become one of national sorrow and grief. All our millions of every section—north, south, east, west—are alike anxious and distressed, for any moment may bring the news of the death of our President, who, as you all know, has been struck down by a wretch whom, for the enormity of his unprovoked and wanton crime, we might almost call a demon. He has not only assailed the Chief Magistrate of the country; but, through him, the whole American people, for the President, after an election, no longer represents a party, but becomes the exponent and executive of the whole nation."

1882. Long, John Davis (1838-1915). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, July 4, 1882, by His Excellency John Davis Long (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1882).
32nd governor of Massachusetts, congressman, secretary of the navy, who was born in Buckfield, Maine.
1883. Carpenter, Henry Bernard (1840-1890). American Character and Influence: Oration Delivered in Boston, July 4, 1883 (Boston: s.n., 1883).

1884. Shepard, Harvey Newton (1850- ). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, July 4, 1884 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1884).

1885. Gargan, Thomas John (1844-1908). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, on the One Hundred and Ninth Anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence, July 4, 1885 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1885).

1886. Williams, George Frederick. Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston on the One Hundred and Tenth Anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence, July 5, 1886 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1886).

The oration took place at the Boston Theatre and began at 10 a.m. Cited in "The Day in Boston," Washington Post, 6 July 1886, 1.
1887. Fitzgerald, John Edward. Oration, Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, on the One Hundred and Elventh Anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence, July 4, 1887 (Boston: City Council, 1887).

1888. Dillaway, William Edward Lovell. Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, on the One Hundred and Twelfth Anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence, July 4, 1888 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1888).

1889. Swift, John Lindsay (1828-1895). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, on the One Hundred and Thirteenth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1889 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1889).

Cited under the title "The American Citizen" by C. W. Ernst in O'Neil (1894). According to Ernst, the pamphlet "contains a bibliography of Boston Fourth of July orations, from 1783 to 1889, inclusive, compiled by Lindsay Swift, of the Boston Public Library."
1890. Pillsbury, Albert Enoch (1849-1930). Public Spirit. Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, on the One Hundred and Fourteenth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1890 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1890).

1891. Quincy, Josiah (1859-1919). The Coming Peace: Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston, on the One Hundred and Fifteenth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1891 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1891).

An active politician who was a great grandson of Josiah Quincy (1772-1864). Quincy was elected to the Massachusetts General Court in 1885 and elected mayor of Boston in 1896.
1892. Murphy, John Robert. Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston on the One Hundred and Sixteenth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1892 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1892).

1893. Putnam, Henry Ware. Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston: on the One Hundred and Seventeenth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1893 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1893).

According to the list of Boston orators by C. W. Ernst, Putnam's orations was titled "The Mission of Our People."
1894. O'Neil, Joseph Henry (1853-1935). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston (Boston: Printed by Order of the City Council, 1894).
Includes appendix: "A List of Boston Municipal Orators," by C. W. Ernst. O'Neil provides a brief history of events preceding the Revolutionary War, the lives of the signers of the Declaration of Independence, John Phillips, who was Boston's orator in 1794, the progress of America, the impact of the Civil War, and the welcoming of immigrants.
1895. Berle, A. A. (1866-1960). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston on the One Hundred and Nineteenth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1895 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1895).
The subject is "The Constitution and the Citizens." Contains "A List of Boston Municipal Orators, by C. W. Ernst," pp. [35]-42.
1896. Fitzgerald, John Francis (1863-1950). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston on the One Hundred and Twentieth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1896 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1897).
He discusses the history of Faneuil Hall, immigration increase in the population, and has some interesting labor charts for occupations in the print edition. Contains a separate appendix: "A List of Boston Municipal Orators," by C. W. Ernst.
1897. Hale, Edward Everett (1822-1909). Contribution of Boston to American Independence: Oration Delivered before the Mayor and Citizens of Boston at the One Hundred and Twenty-First Celebration of the Declaration of Independence, Monday, July 5, 1897 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, Municipal print. Office, 1897).
Contains a list of Boston municipal orators by C.W. (Carl Wilhelm) Ernst (1845- 1919).
1898. O'Callaghan, Denis (1841-1913). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston on the One Hundred and Twenty-Second Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, Monday, July 4, 1898 (Boston: Printed by order of the City Council, 1898).
Contains a list of Boston municipal orators by C. W. Ernst.
1899. Matthews, Nathan, Jr. (1854-1927). Oration before the City Authorities of Boston on the Fourth of July, 1899 ([Boston]: Municipal Print. Office, 1899).
The subject is "Be Not Afraid of Greatness." According to the article "The Day in Boston," in Baltimore Morning Herald, 5 July 1899, 1, the theme of ex-Boston mayor Matthews' speech focused on international "expansion." Matthews said to his audience, "The practical duty of the United States, which no amount of historical misinformation will enable us honorably to avoid, is to re-establish peace and civil order in the Philippine Islands, and to do it at once, and then to formulate a scheme of government for the islands, framed for the sole purpose of promoting the material welfare and political progress of their inhabitants." Another recommended article is "Americans in the Orient," New York Times, 5 July 1899, 5.
1900. O'Meara, Stephen (1854-1918). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston on the One Hundred and Twenty-Fourth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, Wednesday, July 4, 1900. (Boston: Municipal Printing Office, 1900).

1901. Guild, Curtis (1860-1915). Oration Delivered before the City Council and Citizens of Boston: on the One Hundred and Twenty Fifth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, Thursday, July 4, 1901 (Boston: Municipal Printing Office, 1901).

A separate appendix includes a list of Boston municipal orators, by C. W. Ernst. Guild was born in Boston and was Lieutenant Governor of Maryland, 1903-06 and Governor of Massachusetts, 1906-09. In 1908 he ran for the Republican nomination for the vice presidency. The subject of the oration is "Supremacy and Its Conditions."
1902. Conry, Joseph A. Fourth of July Oration . . . at Faneuil Hall, Friday, July 4, 1902 (Boston: [City Council], 1902).

1903. Mead, Edwin D. (1849-1937). Fourth of July Oration . . . at Faneuil Hall, Saturday, July 4, 1903 (Boston, 1903).

The Subject of the oration is "The Principles of the Founders."
1904. Sullivan, John A. Oration Delivered in Faneuil Hall before the City Council and Citizens of Boston. . . : Monday, July 4, 1904 (Boston: Printed by order of City Council, 1904).
The subject of the oration is "Boston's Past and Present. What Will Its Future Be?"
1905. Colt, LeBaron Bradford (1846-1924). Fourth of July Oration . . . at Faneuil Hall, Tuesday, July 4, 1905. America's Solution to the Problem of Government (Boston, 1905).

1906. Coakley, Timothy Wilfred. Oration. The American Race, Its Origin, the Fusion of Peoples; Its Aims, Fraternity. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Thirtieth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1906 (Boston: Municipal Print. Off., 1906; Allied Ptg. Trades Council, 1906).

1907. Horton, Edward Augustus. Patriotism & the Republic. An Oration Delivered at Fanueil Hall, July 4, 1907 (Boston, 1907).

1908. Hill, Arthur Dehon (b. 1889). The Revolution and a Problem of the Present. An Oration Delivered at Faneuil Hall, July 4, 1908 (Boston, 1908).

1909. Spring, Arthur Langdon. The Growth of Patriotism Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Thirty-Third Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 5, 1909. Boston: City Printing Department, 1909.

Arthur L. Spring was a Boston lawyer and former Common Councilman (1890-93). Born at Salmon Falls, New Hampshire, Spring was a member of the Legislature of Massachusetts (1894-95) and served in the Massachusetts militia for sixteen years. He was also one of the directors of the Boston Elevated Railway Company (1895-1900). He died on January 2, 1918.

Spring's oration focused on the history and nature of patriotism covering the periods of the Revolutionary War, "The Constitutional Struggle," Civil War, and "Our Own Times." Patriotism consists, he said, of "a love of country based on freedom and righteousness rather than on strength and power." Further, he explained, "to excel in good citizenship: a spirit which loves the flag but cherishes as well each effort to make a better community."

1910. Wolff, James H. The Building of the Republic. An Oration Delivered at Faneuil Hall, July 4, 1910 (Boston, 1910?).

Wolff studied at Harvard and was active on behalf of civil rights during the late 19th century in Massachusetts.
1911. Eliot, Charles William (1834-1926). The Independence of 1776 and the Dependence of 1911. An Oration Delivered at Faneuil Hall, July 4, 1911 (Boston, 1911).
Educator, graduated from Harvard in 1853 and appointed president of Harvard in 1869. In his address Eliot calls for a new Declaration of Independence "as a means of resisting the oppressive effects of industrial government." Eliot said that a new declaration "if it were written now would among other things set forth that every citizen in a free State has an unalienable right to that amount of employment which will yield for him and his family a decent living; that every worker has a right to be insured against the personal losses due to acute sickness, chronic invalidism, injuries through accident, and the inevitable disabilities of old age; that every man has a right to the normal pleasures and enjoyments of life and leisure to enjoy himself, and that all the instruments of production, including the land and all the means of distributing products should belong, not to individuals, but to the State or to society as a whole. ("New Declaration Needed," New York Times, 5 July 1911, 16.)
1912. Pelletier, Joseph C. (1872- ) Respect for the Law. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Thirty-Sixth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of these United States, July 4, 1912
Includes a list of Boston orators by C.W. Ernst
1913. MacFarland, Grenville S. A New Declaration of Independence: An Oration Delivered at Faneuil Hall, July 4, 1913 (Boston: City Council, 1913).

1914. Supple, James A. Religion: the Hope of a Nation. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Thirty-Eighth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1914 (Boston: City of Boston Printing Department, 1914).

Includes a list of Boston municipal orators by C. W. Ernst, [31]-30.
1915. Brandeis, Louis Dembitz (1856-1941). Oration: True Americanism. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Thirty-Ninth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of the United States, July 5, 1915 (Boston: City of Boston Print. Dept., 1915).
Born in Louisville, Kentucky, Brandeis was an attorney who practiced in Boston until 1916 when he was appointed associate justice of the Supreme Court. Brandeis led the fight for municipal subway systems. His Independence Day oration discussed the Americanization of the immigrant, American ideals, American standard of living, and his belief that education is a lifetime continuum of learning. An online edition of his oration is located in the Louis D. Brandeis School of Law Library.
1916. Chapple, Joe Mitchell. "The New Americanism."

1917. Gallagher, Daniel J. "Americans Welded by War."

1918. Faunce, William H. P. (1859-1930). "The New Meaning of Independence Day."

1919. DeCourcy, Charles Ambrose. Real and Ideal American Democracy (Boston: City of Boston Printing Dept., 1919).

DeCourcy was associate justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts, 1911 to his death.
1920. Wiseman, Jacob L. "America and Its Vital Problem."

1921. Murlin, L. H. "Our Great American."

1922. Burke, Jeremiah Edmund (1867- ). Oration: Democracy and Education; Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, July 4, 1922 (Boston: Printing Department, 1922).

1923. Lyons, Charles W. Oration: The American Mind. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Forty-Seventh Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of these United States, July 4, 1923 (Boston: City of Boston Printing Department, 1923).

Contains a list of Boston orators by C.W. Ernst
1924. Ferrell, Dudley H. "The Genesis and Genius of America."

1925. Dowd, Thomas H. Our Heritage: Independence Day Oration (Boston: City of Boston Printing Department, 1925).

The oration was presented on Boston Common.
1926. Peters, Andrew James. A Citizen's Responsibility for Democracy; Independence Day Oration Delivered at Faneuil Hall, July 5, 1926 (Boston: City of Boston Printing Dept., 1926).

1927. McGinnis, William. "Responsibility of Citizenship."

1928. Rogers, Edith Nourse. "Our Debt to Our Forefathers."

1929. Luce, Robert (1862-1946). Liberty and Law. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Fifty Third Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1929 (Boston: City of Boston Printing Dept., 1929).

Contains a list of Boston orators, by C. W. Ernst
1930. Parker, Herbert (1856-1939). Preservation of Constitution Inviolate. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Fifty Fourth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of these United States, July 4, 1930 (Boston: City of Boston Printing Department, 1930).
Includes a list of Boston orators by C. W. Ernst
1931. Walsh, David I. (1872-1947). Oration. To Establish Justice Our Social and Economic Solution, Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Fifty-Fifth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1931 (Boston: City of Boston Printing Department, 1931).
Lawyer; Walsh was born in Leominster, Massachusetts. He was governor of Massachusetts, 1914-16 and U.S. senator from Massachusetts, 1919-25, 1926-47. He stated in his oration, "'To establish Justice'! This is the alpha and omega of Americanism; the aim, ideal, and inspiration of all who seek to live for and to serve America. Equality of rights and opportunity, unmolested pursuit of happiness, permeated with an exalted sense of justice, are the foundations upon which our political and social institutions have been built."
1932. Rogers, Robert E. "America's Problems."

1933. Tomasello, Joseph A. (1887- ). Oration, Italy's Contribution to America, Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and fifty-Seventh Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of the United States, July 4, 1933 (Boston: Print. Dept., 1933).

Includes an appendix of Boston orators, 1771-1933
1934. O'Connell, William C. (1859-1944). Democracy: Its Origins, Progress and Dangers, Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Fifty-Eighth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1934 (Boston: City of Boston Printing Dept., 1934).
His speech was broadcast over radio station WJZ ("Today on the Radio, July 4, 1934," New York Times, 4 July 1934, 23.
1935. Hart, Albert Bushnell. Oration at Faneuil Hall. Cited in "Two Holiday Flag Raisings," Boston Globe, 5 July 1935, 5.

1936. Malouf, Faris S. (1892-1958) The Fundamentals of True Freedom. An Oration Delivered at Faneuil Hall, July 4, 1936. (Boston: Printing Department, 1936).

Malouf was born in Lebanon and immigrated to the U.S. in 1907. He worked his way up to Boston Street Commissioner in 1936 and by 1945 had become an adviser to the Middle Eastern delegations at the United Nations organizational conference at San Francisco. Malouf was the first Lebanese to hold a position in the Boston city government. In his speech, Malouf recognizes those living in the Middle East and notes the responsibilities that go along with safeguarding democracy.
1937. Mercier, Louis J. A. (1880- ). Independence Day Oration: Principles and Progress, Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the 161 Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence . . . July 4, 1937 (Boston: Printing Dept., 1937).
Includes a list of Boston municipal orators by C. w. Ernst, [23]-32.
1938.

1939. Chadwick, Stephen Fowler (1894-1975). Perpetuity of America Challenged, Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and sixty Third Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1939 (Boston: Printing Dept., 1939).

1940. Sullivan, John P. American Democracy Challenged, Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Sixty-Fourth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1940 (Boston: City of Boston Printing Department, 1940).

1941.

1942.

1943.

1944. Maloney, Francis Thomas. Nation Cannot Survive Internal Persecution of Its Citizens, Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Sixty-Eighth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1944 (Boston: Printing Department, 1944).

1946. Kennedy, John F. Some Elements of the American Character: An Oration Delivered at Faneuil Hall, July 4, 1946 (s.l.: King & Queen Press, 1976).

1949. Wright, John J. Independence Day Exercises, Faneuil Hall, July 4, 1949 (Boston: City of Boston Printing Dept., 1949).

1950. Gray, Francis Calley, president of the Fiduciary Trust Company of Boston. Oration at Faneuil Hall. Cited in "Freedom's Pledge Renewed as City Marks Rainy 4th," Boston Daily Globe, 5 July 1950, 1, 22.

1953. Johnson, Mordecai W., faculty, Howard University. Address at Faneuil Hall. Cited in "Thousands Celebrate Night before the Fourth," Boston Globe, 4 July 1953, 1-2.

1958. Linehan, Daniel. America, a Way to Happiness (Boston: City of Boston Administrative Services Department, Printing Section, 1958).

1959.

1960. Barron, Jennie L. (1891-1969). Freedom for All. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Eighty-Fourth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1960 (Boston: Administrative Services Dept., 1960).

Judge and women's rights activist. In 1937 was named associate of the Boston Municipal Court and later associate of the Massachusetts Superior Court. A copy of Barron's oration is located in a collection of her papers held in the Schlesinger Library at Radcliffe College.
1961. Kennedy, Edward Moore (1932- ). Freedom's Destiny, Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Eighty-Fifth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1961 (Boston: City of Boston Administrative Services Department, Printing Section, 1961).

1962. Canham, Erwin D. The Authentic Revolution. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Eighty-Sixty Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1962 (Boston Administrative Services Dept., 1962).

1963. Gavin, James M. (1907-1990). The American Goal. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Eighty-Seventh Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1963 (Boston: Administrative Service Department, 1963).

Paratroop commander who gained fame during WWII by parachuting with his troops.
1964. Lyons, Louis Martin (1897- ). Rights-Dignity of Man, Renewal-Dignity of City: Independence Day Oration: Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Eighty-Eighth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1964 Boston: Administrative Services Dept., Printing Section, 1964).

1965. Brin, Alexander. The Challenge of Independence Day, Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Eighty-Ninth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 5, 1965 Boston: Printing Section, 1971).

1966. McNiff, Philip James. Freedom and Responsibility. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Ninetieth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1966 (Boston, 1966).

1967. Finn, Daniel J. The Great Experiment. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Ninety-First Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1967 (Boston, 1967).

1968. Wood, Robert Coldwell. Urban Independence. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Ninety-Second Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1968 (Boston, 1968).

1969. O'Leary, Gerald F. The American Odyssey. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Ninety-Third Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1969 (Boston, 1969).

1970. Piemonte, Gabriel F. America: Yesterday-Today-Tomorrow. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Ninety-Fourth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1970 (Boston, 1970).

Candidate for mayor of Boston in 1959.
1971. Homburger, Freddy. Independence or Interdependence: Independence Day Oration, 1971: Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Ninety-Fifth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1971 Boston: Printing Section, 1971).

1972.

1973. Labaree, Benjamin Woods. A Lesson from the Past. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Ninety-Seventh Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1973 (Boston, 1973).

1974.

1975. Lewis, Elma. The Glory of Our Presence. Delivered before the City Government and Citizens of Boston in Faneuil Hall, on the One Hundred and Ninety-Ninth Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence of These United States, July 4, 1975 (Boston, 1975).

1976. Silber, John (1926- ). Democracy: Its Counterfeits and Its Promises (Boston: Boston University, 1976).

Presented at Faneuil Hall on Sunday, July 4, 1976.
1987. Weinstein, Allen. Oration at Faneuil Hall.
President and CEO of the Center for Democracy; professor of history at Boston University, 1985-89; awarded UN Peace Medal Award in 1986 for "efforts to promote peace, dialogue and free elections in several critical parts of the world."
1996. Menino, Thomas. Oration delivered in Faneuil Hall.
Mayor of Boston discussed Bunker Hill to Dorchester Heights
1997. Kelly, James M. Oration delivered in Faneuil Hall.
Boston City Council president

Personal Name Index

Each name is followed by the date of the oration.

Adams, Charles Francis (1843)

Adams, Charles Francis, Jr. (1872)

Adams, John Quincy (1793)

Alger, William Rounseville (1857)

Austin, Ivers James (1839)

Austin, James Trecothick (1829)

Austin, Jonathan Loring (1786)

Barron, Jennie L. (1960)

Bassett, Francis (1824)

Berle, A. A. (1895)

Bigelow, Timothy (1853)

Blake, George (1795)

Blake, Joseph Jr. (1792)

Brandeis, Louis Dembitz (1915) Burke, Jeremiah Edmund (1922)

Callender, John (1797)

Canham, Erwin D. (1962)

Carpenter, Henry Bernard (1883)

Cary, Thomas Greaves (1847)

Chadwick, Stephen Fowler (1939)

Chandler, Peleg Whitman (1844)

Channing, Edward Tyrrel (1817)

Channing, Francis Dana (1806)

Chapman, Jonathan (1837)

Chapple, Joe Mitchell (1916)

Clarke, James Freeman (1875)

Coakley, Timothy Wilfred (1906)

Colt, LeBaron Bradford (1905)

Conry, Joseph A. (1902)

Crafts, Thomas, Jr. (1791)

Curtis, Charles Pelham (1823)

Curtis, George Ticknor (1841; 1862)

Danforth, Thomas (1804)

Dawes, Thomas, Jr. (1787)

DeCourcy, Charles Ambrose (1919)

Dexter, Franklin (1819)

Dillaway, William Edward Lovell (1888)

Dowd, Thomas H. (1925)

Dutton, Warren (1805)

Eliot, Charles William (1911)

Eliot, Samuel (1868)

Emerson, William (1802)

Everett, Alexander Hill (1830)

Everett, Edward (1860)

Everett, William (1870)

Faunce, William H. P. (1918)

Fay, Richard Sullivan (1834)

Ferrell, Dudley H. (1924)

Finn, Daniel J. (1967)

Fitzgerald, John Edward (1887)

Fitzgerald, John Francis (1896)

Frothingham, Richard (1874)

Gallagher, Daniel J. (1917)

Gardiner, John (1785)

Gargan, Thomas John (1885)

Gavin, James M. (1963)

Giles, Joel (1848)

Gray, Edward (1790)

Gray, Francis Calley (1818; 1950)

Gray, John Chipman (1822)

Greenough, William Whitwell (1849)

Guild, Curtis (1901)

Hale, Edward Everett (1897)

Hall, Joseph (1800)

Hart, Albert Bushnell (1935)

Healy, Joseph (1878)

Hepworth, George Hughes (1867)

Hichborn, Benjamin (1784)

Hill, Arthur Dehon (1908)

Hillard, George Stillman (1835)

Holmes, John Somers (1858)

Holmes, Oliver Wendell (1863)

Homburger, Freddy (1971)

Horton, Edward Augustus (1907)

Johnson, Mordecai W. (1953)

Kelly, James M. (1997)

Kennedy, Edward Moore (1961)

Kennedy, John F. (1946)

King, Thomas Starr (1852)

Kinsman, Henry Willis (1836)

Labaree, Benjamin Woods (1973)

Lathrop, John Jr. (1796)

Lewis, Elma (1975)

Linehan, Daniel (1958)

Livermore, Edward St. Loe (1813)

Lodge, Henry Cabot (1879)

Long, John Davis (1882)

Loring, Charles Greely (1821)

Lothrop, Samuel Kirkland (1866)

Lowell, John, Jr. (1799)

Luce, Robert (1929)

Lyman, Theodore, Jr. (1820)

Lyons, Charles W. (1923)

Lyons, Louis Martin (1964)

MacFarland, Grenville S. (1913)

McGinnis, William (1927)

McNiff, Philip James (1966)

Maloney, Francis Thomas (1944)

Malouf, Faris S. (1936)

Mann, Horace (1842)

Manning, Jacob Merrill (1865)

Mason, William Powell (1827)

Matthews, Nathan (1899)

Mead, Edwin D. (1903)

Menino, Thomas (1996)

Mercier, Louis J. A. (1937)

Miner, Alonzo Ames (1855)

Morton, Ellis Wesley (1869)

Murlin, L. H. (1921)

Murphy, John Robert (1892)

O'Callaghan, Denis (1898)

O'Connell, William C. (1934)

O'Leary, Gerald F. (1969)

O'Meara, Stephen (1900)

O'Neil, Joseph Henry (1894)

Otis, Harrison Gray (1788)

Paine, Charles (1801)

Palfrey, John Gorham (1831)

Parker, Edward Griffin (1856)

Parker, Herbert (1930)

Parsons, Theophilus (1861)

Pelletier, Joseph C. (1912)

Peters, Andrew James (1926)

Phillips, John (1794)

Piemonte, Gabriel F. (1970)

Pillsbury, Albert Enoch (1890)

Pollard, Benjamin (1812)

Power, Thomas (1840)

Prescott, Edward Goldsborough (1833)

Putnam, Henry Ware (1893)

Quincy, Josiah (1826; 1798; 1891)

Quincy, Josiah, Jr. (1832)

Ritchie, Andrew, Jr. (1808)

Rogers, Edith Nourse (1928)

Rogers, Robert E. (1932)

Russell, Charles Theodore (1851)

Russell, Thomas (1864)

Sargent, Horace Binney (1871)

Savage, James (1811)

Shaw, Lemuel (1815)

Shepard, Harvey Newton (1884)

Silber, John (1976)

Smith, Robert Dickson (1880)

Sprague, Charles (1825)

Spring, Arthur Langdon (1909)

Stillman, Samuel (1789)

Stone, Andrew Leete (1854)

Sullivan, George (1816)

Sullivan, John A. (1904)

Sullivan, William (1803)

Sumner, Bradford (1828)

Sumner, Charles (1845)

Sumner, George (1859)

Supple, James A. (1914)

Swift, John Lindsay (1889)

Thacher, Peter Oxenbridge (1807)

Tomasello, Joseph A. (1933)

Townsend, Alexander (1810)

Tudor, William, Jr. (1809)

Walsh, David I. (1931)

Ware, John Fothergill Waterhouse (1873)

Warren, George Washington (1881)

Warren, John (1783)

Warren, William Wirt (1877)

Webster, Fletcher (1846)

Weinstein, Allen (1987)

Whipple, Edwin Percy (1850)

Whitwell, Benjamin (1814)

Williams, George Frederick (1886)

Winslow, Hubbard (1838)

Winthrop, Robert Charles (1876)

Wiseman, Jacob L. (1920)

Wolff, James H. (1910)

Wood, Robert Coldwell (1968)

Wright, John J. (1949)

This page last updated April 20, 2010.

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