TED Case Studies

Nepal Sex Trade


Number: 509
Mnemonic: NEPALSEX
Author: Erin Richardson



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I. Identification

1. The Issue

NEPAL
. The word evokes an image of a far off place of wonder. The ultimate travel destination: trekking through the mountains and countryside, exotic locations, hiking through the mountain kingdom nestled in the Himalayas. Yet underneath the wonder and majestic landscape lives one of the poorest countries in the world, rife with human rights violations, especially towards women and children. Every year approximately 10,000 girls from the ages of 9 to 16 are sold, stolen or forced into the brothels of Bombay or Kathmandu. At a time when technological innovation could help prevent human rights violations through education and awareness, the Internet has become a tool to find the locations where young girls are available for prostitution, perpetuating the need for young girls to work in the sex entertainment trade.

2. Description

Nepal is a small mountain kingdom in the Himalayas on the border of India. It is one of the poorest countries in Asia. Nearly all of the people live in small villages around the Kathmandu valley, trying to survive on subsistence farming. Women are viewed as second-class citizens, raised to obey their fathers, brothers and husbands. They have also become a valuable commodity to the poorer regions, and an easy target for pimps and procurers from Bombay brothels. In recent decades, economic and social factors have fueled the boom in prostitution and trafficking of women.

The population of Nepal is doubling every 26 years (23,107,464- July 1997 est.), leading to acute land shortage which is disastrous to a country in which agriculture for the livelihood of over 80 percent of the population and 40% of the GDP. Unemployment (46% in 1995- described as NA%-substantial underemployment in 1996), poverty (per capita annual income (1997) is $200) and illiteracy (73 percent overall; 86 percent female) have combined to produce an enormous pressure to either sell the girl-children or become prostitutes.{1}

Nepalese Socioeconomic Factors which Increase Child Exploitation
Population23,107,464 (1997 est.)
GDP US$200
Unemployment NA% -substantial underemployment
(46% in 1995)
Income US$200
Illiteracy73% overall / 86% females

Current Issues

Beli's story:

Beli was only fourteen years old when she was sold in to a life of prostitution. The brothel madams beat her, starved her, assaulted her both physically and mentally, and locked her in a room until she lost the will to escape. After nearly four years in a brothel, of never being allowed out on the street to buy anything, of living and working in a tiny room with four other people, servicing up to 45 men a day, Beli has escaped to a shelter in Bombay, rescued by Vinod Gupta, a millionaire social worker dedicated to helping these young girls escape the prostitution rings.

But Beli will never shake the legacy of the brothel. Now, at 17, she has found out that she is HIV-positive. She doesn't want to return home, and she has refused to see her brother after he spit in her face when told she had AIDS.

Life would seem desperate to others not in Beli's position. But she will be kept safe and happy, among her new family at Anuradha Koirala's shelter, and looks forward to being able to provide for herself after she completes her painting courses.

Beli's story of kidnapping and rape is not uncommon. Experts believe there are more than 10,000 Nepalese prostitutes in India, many of whom were forcibly abducted or tricked into going there by friends and family who sold them to pimps or brothel owners for prices that range from US $40 to US $1,000.{2} While prostitution is not a crime in India, soliciting and sexual contact with children under 18 is illegal. Areas notorious for selling their innocent girls to India consist of: Ichok, Mahankal, Thakani, Duwachaur of Sinduphalchowk District, and Sikharbese. Also included are Gyangphedi, Kulu, Dhade, Bolgapm, Pating Sireese, Likhu and Kharbuji of Nawakot District. These are the most common villages where deceit is not often necessary. The families willingly sell their young girls for 'big money.'{3} The practice of selling the girl-child is so commonly accepted in some areas that entire villages have been depopulated of women. With the sale of a young woman bringing as much as 10 year's income, there is little surprise at the support to sell the girls. Other times, the girls will return to their villages with new clothes, cash, and jewelry, recruiting even more people into the trafficking ring.

The Constitution of Nepal stipulates that children (a person who has not reached the age of 16) shall not be employed in factories, mines, or similar hazardous work. It also forbids slavery, bonded labor, and trafficking of individuals. The government has a poor record for enforcing the constitutional provisions protecting human rights. Many government and private reports conclude that not enough is known about child prostitution and trafficking in Nepal to do anything, although some estimates state that between 5,000 and 7,000 Nepalese women and girls are taken to Indian brothels each year. Social activists say that 20 percent are younger than 16 and more than one third are taken by force or lured with the false promise of jobs or marriage. {4}

Girls are often recruited with promises of work, wealth, and freedom in the big city. This is a far cry from the life they would lead if they stay in the villages, where they are considered little more than chattel. Traffickers buy them from their families, and sell them to interested individuals and groups running prostitution rings or brothels, or as bonded labor in carpet factories. Kathmandu is the only boom economy in the poor country of Nepal. Cheap, unskilled labor is in great demand, especially in the carpet industry. Many women and girls leave their villages as laborers to find work in the carpet factory. In order to cover the cost of buying labor, the factory owners will sell the prettiest girls to the city brothels, making this industry one of the first contact points for prostitution.

Nepalese women are favored in India because of their light skin and facial structure. Some are taken as early as nine years old. The trafficking of these young girls from Nepal has become a booming business for the brothels, so much so that the pimps and procurers have set up a system to "break in" the new girls by teaching them how to dress, how to talk, and how to put on their make-up. Also during this breaking in period they are locked in a room so they cannot escape, raped, beaten and barely fed. They are then forced to have sex with as many as 35 men per day, for as little as 60 – 100 rupees or US$1 - $2 per client, depending on their age and beauty. Younger girls are worked especially hard to get as much money out of them as possible before they become too old or disease ridden. Almost all of the proceeds go directly to the brothel madams to pay off their "buying price" from the pimps and procurers. The girls never know how much they have been bought for, nor do they know how much they make per client. They can spend nearly 10 years trying to repay the money, virtually enslaving them to the brothel madams.

Traditions of Exploitation

The sale of women and girls has its roots in Nepalese culture and religion. The sex industry in India has been active since the Vedic period, made reference to in the Ramayana and Mahabharata spiritual texts of the Hindu religion. Sex workers were called "Vaishyas' and have accompanied kings to the battlefield, formed the main bodyguard of Emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya, and engaged in intelligence services for the kingdom. During the Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1565) the highest honor bestowed on a young girl was to be sold as a Devadasis, a temple prostitute, literally meaning, "slave of god."{5} The devadasi is a Hindu temple servant who, before reaching puberty, is dedicated for life to the goddess Yallamma.

In other cases, a young girl is "married" to the temple. Traditionally, the divine marriage would transport a low-caste girl into a devotional career of temple singing and dancing. In modern times, this outlawed ritual is believed to absorb nearly 10,000 girls a year, often condemning them to a life of sexual enslavement to temple priests or city brothels. {6}"Untouchable" caste women are also traditionally prostitutes, while other castes allow unmarried women and children to be offered to the temple as offerings. In many cases, there is an established network between the temples and the city brothels. Temple leaders take advantage of the ignorance of the law and the cultural and traditional beliefs of the local communities. In the majority of the cases, this invariable results in the children being sold to the temples then in turn sold to brothel madams. "Some of these forms of child prostitution in India emerge from deeply rooted, traditional practices and beliefs which still prevail," said Richard Young, chief of community development for the United Nations Children's Fund in India. " They may be legally outlawed, but they do continue."{7} Without helping the population overcome some of the historically rooted prejudices, such as women as second class citizens, the birth of a Nepalese child will be rejoiced, but for all the wrong reasons - such as the money she will bring to the family when she is sold.

These traditions of exploitation are some of the many barriers that need to be overcome in order to eradicate the trafficking of women and girls across the border between India and Nepal. These cultural heritages along the caste system are ingrained in their world view. The upper class, especially those in government, does not see trafficking (or the caste system) as a problem since they are not negatively affected. However, outside forces cannot impose their own moral and cultural standards on a sovereign nation, the need for change needs to be recognized within if the traditions are not to be perpetuated. History, traditions, and cultural norms will be extremely difficult to overcome in order to stop the exploitation of the poor Nepalese villagers who are compelled to sell their children in order to survive.

The trafficking of girls has reached high levels of organization and government cooperation. The sex tourism trade is big business for many cities with high tourism, such as Bombay and Kathmandu. In Nepal, tourism is the country's chief industry and sex workers have begun to play a major role in Nepal's tourism earnings.{8} One of the many reasons for the growth of the sex trade in South Asia is the crackdown of other sex trade destinations in the East, such as Bangkok. As these other areas begin to clamp down on their own sex trade, tourists began looking for other "exotic" locations, finding an alternative in South Asia.

Measures to suppress trafficking of women and children have proven inadequate, primarily since law enforcement agencies and government officials are unwilling to enforce the law. Police take bribes to look the other way, and officers leave the brothels alone because corrupt politicians protect them. In the case of rape against prostitutes, sentences range from a fine of 500 rupees (US $9.00) to one year's imprisonment. Brothel owners can be sentenced between 7 to 14 years imprisonment for forcing children into prostitution under the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act of 1986. However, there is a general unwillingness among citizens, particularly government figures, to recognize violence against women as a problem. {9} One lawyer at the Institute of Legal Research and Resources (ILRR) has stated that one of the most significant factors in being unable to halt the sex trade is the lack of adequate laws. "We don't have laws to prosecute anyone involved in illegal prostitution. Our laws can only prosecute those who have forced others in to prostitution against their wishes."{10} Moreover, since many young girls leave their home villages willingly in pursuit of jobs and a better life, it is difficult to prosecute any of the middlemen or brothel owners, who have nothing to lose and everything to gain.

Impact of AIDS

The fear of AIDS by returning prostitutes has discouraged the government from promoting the rehabilitation of prostitutes. It has been estimated that 60% of the prostitutes are HIV positive, some as young as 16.{11} There is a belief that the young girls are less likely to be infected, which has increased the demand for children. Most clients refuse to wear condoms, and if a girl insists, they can always find one who will not. Many of the girls need the money to support their children, or to try and save what little they can for the future. When they are too old or disease-ridden they will be kicked out of the brothel, hopefully having saved enough money to buy a bed on the street.

By their middle teens, many of the prostitutes have developed AIDS symptoms, if not a full-blown case of AIDS. It is estimated that 1,000,000 women between the ages of 15-49, and 48,000 children are infected with HIV in India. The cumulative total is 4,100,000 of the adult population (ages 15-49) are living with HIV/AIDS.{12} Many of the doctors take advantage of the girls' ignorance and illiteracy, and misprescribe the medication while not educating the girls on how to take care of themselves. Healthcare professionals such as the International Health Organization workers and community volunteers try to educate the girls in how to protect and take care of themselves, but in most cases it is too late.

Take for example Durga, a devadasi in the red-light district of Sangli, India, 10 hours from Bombay. She was put through the ritualistic ceremony before her first menstrual cycle, having been raised in a Bombay brothel, where her mother was sold into prostitution by her father. She remembers carrying water for less than a penny a trip, and being raped, beaten and hospitalized at 13 for refusing a customer. But now she makes about $120 a month, enough to support her two children, two brothers, and her mother, and knows no other way of life. In Sangli, the tradition of serving a squatter camp in a prosperous farm-belt has remained unchanged in many ways except one: men have come in asking for younger and younger women. Even here the fear of AIDS has hit the brothels. One young Durga's prostitute once asked her if AIDS was really a disease with no cure. Durga told her yes, and that two of her other co-workers had recently died from it. Durga also told her about Ichalkarana, a textile-mill center not far from Sangli, where eight prostitutes died from AIDS. There, the red-light population, which once numbered around 70, is down to 35.

Durga once thought she would dedicate her daughter to be a devadasi, like herself and her mother. But not anymore. "We are afraid of death," she explained. "We do not want our children to die."{13}

According to some accounts, the sex trade is declining in Bombay. The reasons appear varied, but are primarily due to the AIDS scare. But as the business declines, many men are choosing to buy younger and younger girls, ones who have less chance of having AIDS. There is a culture of child prostitution that will need to be changed before substantive laws will be enforced. "Attitudes and mind sets, corruption and apathy are major obstacles which will not be overcome by any scheme," said Richard Young. {14} Rather than a reactive response or rehabilitation, measures should be proactive and focused on education and empowerment of women and female children. Because of the poverty of the region, women and girls have little in the way of other employment opportunities.

Illiteracy has proven to be one of largest contributors to social inequality in Nepal and India. Although the Nepalese constitution offers women equal opportunities for education, many social, economic, and cultural factors contribute to lower enrollment and higher drop out rates for girls. A direct correlation exists between the level of education and status. Female children of wealthy families have much higher education levels and access to relatively high-status positions in government and the private sector. Poorer women are caught in a vicious circle imposed by the patriarchal society. Their lower status hinders their education, and the lack of education constricts their status and position.

Saving the Girls

This has not stopped some people from trying to rescue these young girls. Vinod Gupta, one of Bombay's most active millionaires, has devoted his retirement to fighting the evils of India's most corrupt city. Gupta started an organization called Savdhan to organize the rescue of these young prostitutes. When Gupta receives a smuggled letter asking for help, he organizes a raid on the brothel (with local police cooperation in order to make it legal) to seize the girl and get her out. By his account, nearly 5,800 girls have been rescued. He surprised Bombay in 1982 by rescuing a 13-year-old Nepalese girl who was being prostituted to foreign sex tourists in luxury hotels in a case that made international news. More than a decade after that renowned case, and a decade after India and Nepal signed a treaty to stop child trafficking, Gupta estimates prostitution is still worth about $800,000 a day to Bombay's underworld mafia, pimps, and local politicians. {15} The police may raid the brothels and imprison sex workers along with pimps, madams, and traffickers, but corruption permits the sex industry to thrive, and police are among the men who use the brothels. Because of this, there are many vested interests in not pulling off a successful raid. Oftentimes, the madams are tipped off in advance, hide the girls and get out of the brothels before the raiders can rescue any of their girls.

Even if a raid is successful, other problems occur in trying to decide what to do with the girls. In February 1996, Bombay police "rescued' over 400 women and children (over 60 percent were minors) from India's largest brothel. Two hundred and eighteen of those rescued had been trafficked from Nepal. The women were detained and were unable to be released since the governments of India and Nepal refused a dialogue about what to do with the girls. Social workers say the Indian government has been reluctant to resolve the issue other than to send the sick back to their home villages.

Rescue operations have also been ineffective. Of 547 young girls rescued during a much-publicized police raid on Bombay brothels in February 1996, 238 were Nepali. They were sent to remand homes where they languished for five months due to authorities’ inaction. Five girls died and 32 escaped during this time. Following pressure from Nepali non-governmental organizations, 124 were finally sent back to Nepal in July, though many face continued problems of social rehabilitation, venereal diseases, including HIV infection, and rejection by their families.{16}

However, many of the rescued girls want to return to the brothel. They do not feel as though they will be accepted back in their villages. In many cases, they are correct. Many regions in Nepal do not want to become the dumping ground for "India's soiled goods."{17} They do not see these girls as victims. India and Nepal share an open border, so there is no telling how many ex-prostitutes are returning to their home villages, or how many new girls are entering the brothels.

Hopeful Future?

Not all hope is lost, though. There are a growing number of women empowerment activists and human rights groups in Nepal, and nearly all political parties have their own women's group. However, little success has come of enacting tougher legislation. Authorities in Nepal fear loss of face. An awareness of Western concern might help motivate massive penalties for the corruption that permits these practices to happen.

Internationally, steps are being taken at the national level to target sexual exploitation at home and abroad. New extraterritorial laws in some countries, including Australia, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States now permit countries to prosecute nationals guilty of sex offenses overseas. This might help to decrease the interest in sexual tourism, since visitors may have to pay a price for their activities. Recently, the World Trade Organization established a Task Force to target tour operators and hotels that knowingly cater to sex tourists. Enforcing these new sanctions and laws will require international cooperation from a variety of participants, including government entities such as the police and judicial systems, as well as local and international NGOs. However, it is the enforcement of the law that has been the primary problem in the Bombay area. Many local officials and policemen benefit from prostitution.

Prostitution and the sex trade are issues nobody wishes to talk about in India or Nepal. Many think it is an unavoidable evil. In the short run, it helps the economy and benefits those in power. However, over time, ignoring the unsustainable situation will only enhance the negative impact on the culture and health of the society. If the country become so highly infected with AIDS, drastic measures may become necessary and will only hurt the economy even more. Enforcement of local, national and international laws that have been largely nonexistent need to be adhered to. With the underlying causes of the issue being multifaceted, (the poor economic conditions and the cultural norms that allow women to be sold into sexual slavery), these socioeconomic issues also need to be addressed before a substantive solution can be found. But with the growing awareness of the massive human rights violations, not to mention the increasing number of AIDS cases, isn't it about time this issue is seriously discussed between the Indian and Nepalese governments?

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4. Draft Author:

Erin Richardson

(17 November 1998)

II. Legal Clusters

5. Discourse and Status:

Disagree and Allege

6. Forum and Scope:

Nepal and India

7. Decision Breadth:

Nepal and India

This case has the potential to become multilateral because of the human rights violations against children. The international community is becoming involved since the trafficking continues. The Stockholm World Congress Against Commercial Exploitation of Children in 1996 was the first concerted international effort to tackle the problem. While laws forbidding sexual exploitation of children exist in nearly every nation, they are notoriously hard to enforce. Experts at the Stockholm conference stressed that, while sex tourism is a well documented problem, "commercial sexual exploitation of children is predominantly a local issue, with both clients and agents coming from the local community." {18}

8. Legal Standing:

Law

Prostitution of children is illegal in India. The local governments turn a blind eye to the brothels and human rights violations.

III. Geographic Clusters

9. Geographic Locations

a. Geographic Domain: Asia

b. Geographic Site: South East Asia

c. Geographic Impact: Nepal and India

10. Sub-National Factors:

No

11. Type of Habitat:

Variable depending on region.

IV. Trade Clusters

12. Type of Measure:

Import Ban

13. Direct v. Indirect Impacts:

Both Direct and Indirect Impacts.

There are both direct and indirect impacts. AIDS is directly affecting both countries. It is estimated that 1,000,000 women from the ages of 15-49 and 48,000 children from the ages of 0-15 are currently living with HIV/AIDS in India. Eventually, as the sex workers become too ill to service the men, they are sent back to their villages in Nepal. Tension between the countries arises on this issue since Nepal views India as dumping its "used goods" back into Nepal. However, neither side is willing to participate in a dialogue.

Indirectly, the pull of the "good life" in Bombay is depleting many Nepalese villages of their girl-children. The socioeconomic conditions that drive them away also prevent them from having adequate care when they return.

14. Relation of Trade Measure to Environmental Impact:

INDirect

a. Directly Related to Product: Yes- The sex trade is illegal in both India and Nepal.

b. Indirectly Related to Product: Yes -- AIDS

c. Not Related to Product: No

d. Related to Process: Yes -- Development

15. Trade Product Identification:

Women and Girls (by means of the sex trade)

16. Economic Data

Economic information in U.S. dollar amounts taken from the CIA World Fact Book{19}

GDP: purchasing power parity - $26.5 billion (1996 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: 2.9% (FY95/96 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $1,200 (1996 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:

Agriculture: 42%

Industry: 22%

Services: 36% (1996 est.)

Inflation rate - consumer price index: 9.2% (1996 est.)

Labor force:

Total: 9.2 million (1996 est.)

By occupation: agriculture 90%, services 7%, industry 3%

Note : severe lack of skilled labor

Unemployment rate: NA%; substantial underemployment (1996 est.)

Nepal's poor economic condition is one of the primary factors in the sale of their children to procurers from India.

17. Impact of Trade Restriction:

HIGH if enforced. Currently LOW since both countries ignore the issue and refuse a dialogue.

18. Industry Sector:

ENTER- Entertainment industry

19. Exporters and Importers:

Case Exporter: Nepal

Case Importer: India

V. Environment Clusters

20. Environmental Problem Type:

Health

AIDS is already a monumental problem in both Nepal and India. Many of the larger cities where the sex industry thrives have increasingly higher numbers of prostitutes that are HIV-positive (about 40% in Bombay). It is also being spread to smaller communities along the trucking routes. In addition, many Nepalese communities are being totally depopulated of girl-children who are sold to traffickers looking for younger and younger children that have a higher buying price and are less likely to be infected. It is severely impacting population trends in many areas.

21. Demographic Data on Nepalese Women

a. Total Fertility Rate: 4.96 children/woman (1997 estimates)

b. Infant Mortality: 78.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1997 estimates)

c. Population Growth: 2.53% (1997 estimates)

d. Female Illiteracy: 86% (1995 estimates)

22. Resource Impact and Effect:

Resource Impact: HIGH

Effect: REGUL

24. Substitutes:

EDU- Education or ENF- law enforcement

23. Urgency and Lifetime:

Life expectancy 57.13 years overall, lower in some areas (1997 estimate).

VI. Other Factors

25. Culture:

Yes

The patriarchal culture is one of the driving forces of the sex trade. Girl-children are seen as a particularly good investment because they can bring in a high price from procurers and brothel madams.

The cultural status of women is largely one of inferiority. Their educational and work opportunities are severely limited, especially in poor economic areas. In many cases, they agree to be sold in order find a better life in the city, while in reality they are sold into a life of sexual slavery in the brothels. Without a cultural shift in perceiving women and girls as something other than second-class citizens and commodities to be bought and sold, the trafficking of girls and sex trade among countries in south Asia will continue.

26. Trans-Boundary Issues:

Yes

The porous border between India and Nepal makes the trafficking of girls easy. It will be necessary for both countries to enforce their laws in order to stop this crime. Should the spread of AIDS continue to increase among the prostitutes (60% are already HIV-positive) and brothels in India, the disease will also continue to spread throughout Asia along trade routes and to other villages.

27. Rights:

Yes

The trafficking of girls is clearly a human rights issue and a crime against humanity. Nepal is a party to the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child. Unfortunately, it is not upholding the spirit of the convention if not the commitment. These children need to be protected because they are unable to protect themselves.

28. Relevant Literature

1. CIA World Fact Book 1997. Nepal. http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/country-frame.html

2. John Ward Anderson, "Nepal's Shame; Girl-Trafficking Meets a Determined Roadblock," The Nepal Digest, May 1 1995. http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/tnd/0128.html

3. Barbara Adams, "How Long Must We Wait?" 27 February 1997. http://www.bena.com/nepaltrek/adams/ad70227.htm

4. John Ward Anderson, "Nepal's Shame; Girl-Trafficking Meets a Determined Roadblock," The Nepal Digest, May 1 1995. http://library.wustl.edu/~listmgr/tnd/0128.html

5. Taken from a report prepared by Dr. Ashok Sahni, Indian Society of health Administrators, 1996, found in "Trafficking in girls and women," ECPAT International 1996, http:www.rb.se/ecpat/traffick.htm 26 Sept. 1998.

6. John Stackhouse, "In Rural India, Traditions of Child Sexual Exploitation Endure," Scripps Howard News Service, http://worldsexguide.org/india_child.txt.html

7. John Stackhouse, "In Rural India, Traditions of Child Sexual Exploitation Endure," Scripps Howard News Service, http://worldsexguide.org/india_child.txt.html

8. Inter Press Service, "Kathmandu Brothel Raid a sign of Growing Sex Industry," 26 November 1997. http://worldsexguide.org/nepal_bits.txt.html

9. U.S. Department of State Nepal Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1997, http://www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/1997_hrp_report/nepal.html

10. Inter Press Service, "Kathmandu Brothel Raid a sign of Growing Sex Industry," 26 November 1997. http://worldsexguide.org/nepal_bits.txt.html

11. Ruchira Gupta, "The Selling of Innocents," 1997 Documentary.

12. United Nations AIDS Program, 1997. http://www.unaids.org/unaids/document/epidemic/june98/fact%5Fsheets/pdfs/india.pdf

13. John Stackhouse, "In Rural India, Traditions of Child Sexual Exploitation Endure," Scripps Howard News Service, http://worldsexguide.org/india_child.txt.html

14. John Stackhouse, "In Rural India, Traditions of Child Sexual Exploitation Endure," Scripps Howard News Service, http://worldsexguide.org/india_child.txt.html

15. John Stackhouse, "Bombay Millionaire Devotes Retirement to Rescuing Prostitutes," Scripps Howard News Service, http://worldsexguide.org/india_child.txt.html

16. Anne Usher, "taken from Nepali girls sold as prostitutes" Urban Childhood International Conference PRESS RELEASE Trondheim, Norway, 9 - 12 June, 1997 12 June. URBAN CHILDHOOD ON-LINE. Internet WWW site at URL:http://childhouse.uio.no/workshops/Open/URBAN_CHILDHOOD_ONLI/17.html 10 November 1998

17. Tim McGirk, "Nepal's Lost Daughter, India's Soiled Goods," Time, vol. 149 no. 4, 27, January 1997. http://cgi.pathfinder.com/time/magazine/1997/int/970127/asia.nepals_lost.html

18. "Children in the Shadow of HIV Risk." United Nations AIDS Program http://www.unaids.org/unaids/events/wad/1997/shadow.html

19.CIA World Fact Book 1997. Nepal. http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/country-frame.html


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