TED Case Studies

Deforestation in Indonesia and the Orangutan Population




I. Identification

1. The Issue

Indonesia is facing a threat to its tropical rainforests and its orangutan population. MNC logging operations, swidden agriculture, and the voluntary migration of indigenous Indonesians, are policies the Indonesian Government has recently adopted, posing a threat to the biodiversity of the Islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Most of the policies have been adopted to help Indonesia service its debt to the developed world, and if the Indonesian Government continues with its current agricultural policies, the East Asian tropical rainforest could become extinct in the not so distant future, taking with it many endangered species. One species of animal that is endangered is the orangutan, which can only be found on the Indonesian islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Many scientists have theories of how the Orangutan can be saved, but all agree that Indonesian deforestation should be slowed, and the developed world must provide some assistance to Indonesia so it can pay its debts without having to compromise its environmental biodiversity.

2. Description

Indonesia is facing a problem of deforestation in its tropical rainforests. The deforestation has been a result of developed countries■ multinational corporations■ need for wood, pulp and plywood products, along with the Indonesian government■s lack of vigilance in an attempt to maintain some protection for its own rainforest. As a result, 40% of the Indonesian rainforest has been deforested, and a current estimate of fifty acres per minute continues to be logged at the present time. As the logging continues, a great area of biodiversity is lost, as 60% of the world■s animal and plant species, and 90% of the world■s primate species are found within the rich habitat of the Asian rainforest.(1) The one animal in the rainforest that may suffer the most from the deforestation is the orangutan. Even though the Indonesian government has set aside some national park space to preserve the orangutan's habitat, corruption within the government and illegal logging and poaching run the risk of nullifying any attempts at saving the orangutan. Therefore, in the near future we might discuss the orangutan■s existence in the past tense, rather than in the present, as it runs the risk of extinction. Indonesian Deforestation

When analyzing the current problems that the orangutan's face, the central issue involves the deforestation within Indonesia. Indonesia's tropical rainforests remained quite lush and intact until the end of the nineteenth century, where 95% of the forest had not been harvested. With the onset of the industrialization and mechanized logging, the land areas of Borneo and Sumatra within Indonesia had undergone devastating clearcutting practices until the mid 1980's, when the Indonesian Government began to implement forestry management programs. Even with the forest management programs, a large amount of Indonesia's forest had already been damaged, and much of its biodiversity and soil quality was destroyed.

Over the past forty years, the accelerated pace of transformation of the Indonesian forest has not only been a result of logging practices, but also the conversion of the forest by the indigenous populations to grassy plains for agricultural purposes or swidden agriculture.(2) Swidden agriculture is the result of an Indonesian Government program to move approximately 6,000 families from the overcrowded urban areas, to the more remote areas of the islands, where they can raise farms to support their families. But the remote areas of the islands contain highly dense tropical forests that must be cleared for the swidden agricultural uses, involving an enormous reduction of biodiversity and the loss of endemic species to the forest such as the tiger, elephant and orangutan.

Other effects of the Indonesian Government■s forest clearance for agricultural purposes include damage to the soils of the forest and rapid erosion of the forest floor. Forests protect against erosion, and much of the research into soil and hydrology confirms that, "although it is wrong to assume that no erosion takes place under the forest, there is a jump of major order once the forest is cleared."(3) With the increased erosion of the forests of Borneo and Sumatra, the natural hydrological regimes have become disrupted in somewhat of a domino effect, where increased runoff has lead to greater stream silt yields, that have lead to increased water capacity for rivers and streams causing the possibilities of flash floods after heavy rainstorms. Thus, the various land settlement programs that the Indonesian government have devised, turned the fragile areas of the East Asian tropical forest into endangered areas by developing the forests of Borneo and Sumatra in inappropriate ways.

The land settlement programs are not the only problem facing the Indonesian rainforest, as an extremely large amount of deforestation is a result of Japanese MNC clearcutting practices. The longing for wood and wood byproducts by Japanese MNCs is fueled mainly by the large amount of construction that takes place in Japan, as Japanese MNCs must import over 70% of the wood they use.(4) Much of the wood must be relatively free of blemishes and knots, so that it can be manufactured into plywood forms for concrete that have approximately three uses until they will be thrown away, but if the wood is blemished, it will usually be utilized for pulp within the paper mills.

This type of logging and environmental degradation is not new to many of the Southeastern Asian countries, as the Japanese MNCs have moved from deforesting the Philippines, to Sabah, and now they are invading Sarawak (see table 1). In Sarawak, the MNC logging practices are extremely destructive because of the large amount of land cleared for roads and work space (e.g.; 14% of total amount of deforestation), as well as 40% of the logged area is completely denuded by the logging MNC.(5) An example of the MNC destruction was that "one selectively logged hectare in Sarawak, where 26 trees where taken out for timber, 33 more were broken or badly damaged."(6) In addition, many Japanese MNCs, Mitsubishi included, have not engaged in an organized replanting effort of what they have logged, and have simply left the developing country■s land barren and desolate.

Table 1: Japanese MNC Deforestation in East Asia* YEAR PHILIPPINES SABAH SARAWAK 1980 1,100 6,300 2,300 1981 1,400 5,500 2,900 1982 1,300 6,400 4,000 1983 600 6,200 4,100 1984 900 5,500 4,300 1985 500 5,900 5,400 1986 260 6,000 4,800 1987 27 7,000 5,500 1988 32 5,400 5,300 1989 10 4,600 5,600 *Rounded off to hundreds; the numbers represent 1,000 cubic meters Source: Borneo Log; The Struggle for Sarawak's Forest

Ecologists agree that the Indonesian rainforest can be saved with an interactive plan by the government for two managed cuts over 80 years, instead of the current three, four and five cuts that are occurring within that 80 year period. However, the effort of managed forestry will be difficult for the Indonesian Government to implement because the "forestry and timber manufacturing employment within Indonesia are as high as 3.7 million [directly], supporting approximately 15 million Indonesian people [indirectly]," and much of the government■s profits from the logging efforts are utilized to service Indonesia■s U.S.$2 billion per year debt to Japan.(7) If there is any hope for the future maintenance of biodiversity of Indonesia's rainforest, and the survivability of the wild orangutan, the Indonesian Government, and the developed countries of the world should devise a means to help Indonesia balance its economic problems, with its political and ecological problems. Oragutan Alert

There is an underlying disdain by Indonesia directed toward the hypocrisy of the developed countries of the world in their attempts to pressure Indonesia into the husbandry of their resources to save endangered animals such as the orangutan, because many of the developed countries of the world have already depleted their own natural resources. But the orangutan is such a unique primate, that a closer look at it, and its environment, should be taken into account. The orangutan is surprisingly similar to human beings in that 97% of their DNA matches ours, our common gestation period is 275 days, and we both have fingernails rather than claws.(8) However, one main difference between orangutans and human beings is that the orangutan is a category 5 endangered species with approximately 10,000 to 20,000 remaining on only two islands in the world, that includes Borneo and Sumatra, while human beings are no where near endangered, and are wiping out much of the orangutan■s habitat. The habitat destruction is occurring due to the legal and illegal logging operations on Borneo and Sumatra in order to clear land for agricultural purposes, and the logging is destroying much of the primate's main food sources which are fruit trees.

While the forest destruction occurs, and the orangutan population decreases, the primates have become pressured by another source, and that is poachers. The poachers engage in the capture of infant orangutans, which usually involves the killing of the mother animal, so that wealthy individuals, circuses and zoos in various countries will be able to purchase the babies on the black market. The smuggling operation is a startling fact, but even more startling is that between 1988 and 1990, as many as 3000 young orangutans may have been smuggled by boat from Indonesia, and for every baby orangutan that reaches its destination, between five and six babies have died in the process of transport.(9) Since the orangutan females only stay fertile until the age of thirty, and tend to have only three to four babies in their lifetimes, it becomes difficult for the orangutan population to keep up with the poaching efforts, especially when they are continually becoming stressed by a habitat loss. The stress that is being placed upon the neglected ape is causing the primate to be placed in a very vulnerable position, and one that it may not survive through.

The survivability of the orangutan population mainly depends upon Indonesian rainforest degradation, which is the most significant threat confronting the conservation of the status of the species. That is because "the great majority of orangutan habitat is in lowland rainforest," in which most orangutans live a majority of their lives in the tree canopy of the forest.(10) But the canopy of trees has been under attack by many Japanese logging operations, and even though much of the timber extraction by the MNCs is not focussed on the fruit trees that the orangutans feed from, such as the strangling fig, the strangling figs have been dying because of large amounts of teak removal. The teak is a wood that is highly prized by the Japanese MNCs and once it is removed, the removal will often cause the strangling fig trees to die because of the disruption to the biodiversity of the rainforest.

Other hazards from commercial logging operations that the orangutans face include the building of roads for the low-land harvesting of timber. Not only does the road construction hasten the erosion processes that will take place within the orangutan habitat, but they also effectively isolate orangutan individuals from one another, leaving the primates with no migratory corridors with which to travel in search of a mate. When the isolation occurs, scientists have noted a significant drop in genetic diversity within the orangutan population, that leads to future birth defects among the animals. Therefore, scientists have devised three recommendations to attempt a reversal of orangutan isolation, and these include; (1) restore the connection between separated populations of orangutans with the destruction and replanting of commercial logging roads; (2) do not permit as many new roads to be built within the rainforest; and (3) try to reduce future forest loss.(11) The three recommendations provide a good beginning for a plan of preservation so that the orangutan might have a chance at survival.

Other recommendations that many scientists have made may also contribute to rainforest biodiversity and orangutan survivability. One such recommendation is that more hard data must be collected on how many orangutans are left in the wild, which includes exactly how many hectares of forest are necessary to ensure the orangutans survival. The lack of quantifiable data poses great problems for scientists, who can only make broad approximations concerning the orangutan and its habitat. Also, since habitat loss is the principle threat to orangutan survival, "it follows that habitat protection should be the highest priority," and many scientists recommend a direct conservation program through the establishment and management of protected areas.(12) But, "many of the benefits of protected areas, and especially the reasons for conserving the orangutan, are more apparent in a national or global prospective, as most of the costs of refraining from exploiting the protected animals are borne locally."(13)

This asymmetry lies at the heart of many problems with conservation programs in developing countries, where attention is demanded for the problems and welfare of the indigenous populations, whose lives are affected by the creation of protected areas. Often times, when the indigenous populations' livelihoods are encroached upon, they will engage in the damaging acts of poaching endangered animals, that can fetch many thousands of dollars on the black market. Therefore, the issues and problems of orangutan conservation should be viewed within the wider context of the economic and social development of Indonesia, and there should be a review of the role of the developed countries, private sector, international aid agencies and non-governmental organizations in order for there to occur an integration of conservation and development.

Many scientists from the developed world have been contributing to the preservation and protection of the Indonesian orangutans, by developing rehabilitation centers in Indonesia for orangutans that have suffered from malnutrition, caused by being poached and sold as pets on the black market. Often times the baby primates arrive at an individual owner from the black market in a very cute and cuddly manner, but as the orangutan grows and develops around human beings, it can become roguish, bite, defecate in unwanted places, and pass on diseases to the owners. When this behavior begins, and the pet owner realizes that the primates are not a pet that can be easily taken care of, the orangutans are often abandoned and die in areas of the world that they cannot survive the climate conditions. Therefore, the rehabilitation centers within Indonesia provide a safe haven, and a means of recovery for the abandoned orangutans that may manage to survive a trip back to their homeland of Borneo or Sumatra.

Along with the rehabilitation centers for the orangutans, there have been other developments to try and ensure the survival of the orangutan. One of the developments includes a new proposal by the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, under a new energetic administrator who is "actively seeking the ways and means to call a halt to the ongoing deforestation of the orangutan's habitat."(14) The new orangutan survival program includes an attempt to "increase law enforcement, and stop the current surge of illegal capture, killing, and trading of orangutans, by means of a reintroduction program."(15) But much of the rhetoric from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry has already been expressed in the past, and we cannot be sure if the Ministry is truly concerned for its orangutan population. Managing Tropical Rainforests in a More Sustainable Manner

Indonesia must learn to manage its tropical rainforests in a more sustainable manner than it has in the past, even though there is the fear of the short run economic costs of environmental protection. That is because Indonesia is one of the few countries in the world with fairly large tracts of virgin rainforest that have become a priority for protection. Therefore, since the forest is so valuable in its natural state, the theoretical principle is that logging or land conversion on a specific forest should only take place if the net benefits of exploitation outweigh the net benefits of forest conservation, taking into account all of the relative costs and benefits of the various land use options. The problem with this economic calculation is that land conversion from logging and agriculture are fairly easy to calculate. Conversely, the benefits of forest conservation are diverse and it can be difficult to measure the markets for ecotourism, recreation, human habitat, and the habitat of a variety of endangered species.

Even when examining new uses for the rainforest such as ecotourism, it still cannot be forgotten that Indonesia is highly dependent upon its timber industry in order to service its debts to the developed world. This is a main reason why the logging will most likely not stop, and if it does not stop, there should be methods developed in order to streamline MNC logging operations. The first streamlining method would be to bring about a required operating efficiency level to all wood processing plants in Indonesia. It is estimated that approximately US$182 million is lost annually due to inefficient wood processing and waste. A second recommendation would be to immediately stop the Indonesian resettlement program that is overcrowding its outer islands and leading to vast tracts of deforestation for agricultural purposes.

A third and final recommendation is for improved management of the Indonesian conservation areas. Indonesia has set aside 10% of its land area for conservation, which is "a much larger area than so designated in most developed and developing countries."(16) In total, nearly 20 million ha are set aside as reserves and another 30 million ha as permanent protection forest.(17) With this large amount of protected area, the Indonesian Government should maintain increased vigilance against any type of encroachment upon the land for either agricultural purposes, or for the purposes of poaching endangered species. That becomes increasingly difficult when the management efforts suffer from a severe shortage of funds and staff to aid in the management of the reserves. Without the staff or funds to protect the forests, poaching, and legal as well as illegal logging will be able to continue its rampant run.

There are also other political variables that must be taken into account for why Indonesia's deforestation is continuing. The first variable comes from the attitudes of Indonesian decision makers toward development, because most of the attitudes have been "rooted in colonial experience and based upon a western understanding of development."(18) Most of the colonial powers have been replaced by a new land-owning elite, nearly all of whom were educated in western-oriented schools and many were taught the principles of economic liberalism and development through industrialization. Some of the western concepts of development are based on a set of "attitudes and values that is chiefly concerned with shaping the world of nature through science and technology to make the world more prosperous, and with these beliefs, it is easy to see why Indonesia's political leaders are allowing its current deforestation to continue."(19)

These powerful political leaders have promoted destructive logging practices over many years, in large part because of corrupt deals, and back room meetings, resulting in concessions to logging MNCs in exchange for political, military or monetary favors. The illegal concessions, based upon political and economic interests, often overshadow the "concerns of Indonesia's Department of Environment," but even Indonesia■s Department of the Environment is not immune to the corruption that occurs within the government.(20)

One would think that with the extensive political, economic and environmental implications of Indonesian deforestation, international organizations such as the IMF and the World Bank, along with the aid of the developed world would provide policy advice and set conditions to discourage deforestation in the country. In reality, it is quite the contrary, as "IMF policies have encouraged import of manufactured goods and northern technology in exchange for natural resources including timber," while the "World Bank and Asian Development Bank have helped finance development projects in Indonesia such as hydroelectric dams, roads and transmigration, all of which contribute to deforestation."(21) In addition to the international organizations, developed countries such as Japan have played an important role in Indonesian deforestation, due to Indonesia's need to obtain foreign exchange to service its increasing economic debt to Japan.

3. Related Cases


4. Draft Author:

Jason R. Miller, 1/30/97

II. Legal Clusters

5. Discourse and Status:

DISagreement and INPROGress

6. Forum and Scope:

INDONESIA and MULTIlateral The case involves the legal area of Indonesia that sets its logging, indigenous farming, and endangered species policy through the Ministry of Forestry. Other international organizations that have become involved on the issue of Indonesian deforestation include the World Bank and the IMF that are trying to help Indonesia to manage its resources in a more sustainable manner. The third area of involvement includes the Governmental policies of developed countries such as Japan, that do not allow for Japanese MNCs to harvest Japan's forest, which has been leading to the Japanese MNC degradation of various tropical rainforests such as the one in Indonesia.

7. Decision Breadth:

(Indonesia and some of the developed world) Japanese MNCs are the primary harvesters of Indonesian forest due to the large debt (U.S. $2 billion) Indonesia owes to the Japanese government. But there are other MNCs from developed countries that are engaging in Indonesian deforestation also (see table 2). The World Bank and the IMF are currently developing programs to educate the Indonesian Government on how to practice sustainable forestry, that will help to save the Indonesian rainforest biodiversity and the endangered orangutan that can be found within the rainforest. Included in that effort are many independent scientists such as Dr. Birute F. M. Galdikas, Lori Sheeren, and Norm Rosen who have been collecting new data on the Asian rainforest and orangutan survival. Table 2 Indonesian Debt to Japan and other Developed Countries Total Receipts Net received by Indonesia; Disbursements stated in millions of US dollars JAPAN US Germany Canada France 1989 1959.9 783.0 34.0 30.4 87.8 1990 1521.8 145.0 33.5 69.8 62.5 1991 2948.9 145.0 140.0 68.2 41.7 1992 2819.0 927.0 424.0 30.7 77.2 1993 282.4 1361.0 590.6 21.2 44.5 1994 1434.3 2083.0 48.9 24.4 337.1 Source: Geographic Distribution of Financial Flows to Developing Countries, OECD

8. Legal Standing:

LAW and SUBLAW Indonesia's Department of the Environment has set some domestic guidelines as to indigenous population resettlement practices for agricultural purposes, and they have also set aside approximately 10% of the rainforest for natural parks and habitat for the orangutan. However, there still exists a great deal of illegal logging by the MNCs and the indigenous farmers, along with a large amount of poaching of orangutan infants that will be sold onto the black market in Taiwan and Hong Kong as pets. Many of the orangutans that have been transported onto the black market become ill and die, and the ones that do survive to become pets grow large, become roguish, and make bad pets. Often times the orangutans are then abandoned by their owners and die, but the ones that do survive are sent back to Indonesia to the newly formed recovery centers, so that they might become healthy and be released back into one of the national parks that Indonesia has set aside for the species' recovery.

III. Geographic Clusters

9. Geographic Locations

a. Geographic Domain: ASIA

b. Geographic Site: EAST ASIA

c. Geographic Impact: INDONESIA

10. Sub-National Factors:


11. Type of Habitat:

TROPical Indonesia contains one of the world's largest tropical forests, of which the Asian orangutan is located. The rainforests on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra are the only areas in the world where the orangutan can be found.

IV. Trade Clusters

12. Type of Measure:

IMPORT BAN The timber that is harvested by the Japanese MNCs is not banned from export or import in Indonesia. But the sale of endangered species such as the orangutan is banned, and that has caused many private individuals, zoos and circuses to resort to purchasing the orangutan on the black market. The orangutan black market has contributed to many orangutan deaths due to the poor conditions that they force the primates to be transported under.

13. Direct v. Indirect Impacts:


14. Relation of Trade Measure to Environmental Impact

a. Directly Related to Product:YES ORANGUTAN

b. Indirectly Related to Product:YES WOOD

c. Not Related to Product:YES PLYWOOD

d. Related to Process:YES SPECIES LOSS LAND

15. Trade Product Identification:

ORANGUTAN and PLYWOOD and PAPER and CHOPSTICK When looking at the political and ecological implications of deforestation in Indonesia, a narrow prospective on the issues cannot be upheld. That is because the effects of the production of chopsticks and plywood by Japanese MNCs have contributed to many indigenous cultures and endangered species of animals of the Indonesian rainforest becoming displaced and even extinct.

16. Economic Data

Indonesia is in the process of allowing the cutting of fifty hectares per minute of its tropical rainforest by various Japanese MNCs. Much of the cutting has been allowed by the Indonesian Government, so that it may gain foreign currency to service its US$2 billion debt to Japan. The Japanese demand for tropical timber has provided economic incentives for Indonesia to exploit its forests. During the 1960s and 1970s, the focus of the Japanese timber industry switched from the Philippines which had become almost totally deforested, toward Indonesia. In 1971, Indonesia became Japan's main supplier of tropical logs, and the peak came in 1974, when Japanese MNCs forested 11.5 million cubic acres. The logs that were forested by the MNCs fueled Japan■s domestic plywood industry and were used to make "kon-pane," siding for the construction of concrete building foundations. The impact of the Japanese timber industry has included the construction of logging roads, harmful large-scale development projects, and unsustainable timber extraction. If the Japanese MNCs continue with their current unsustainable timber extraction practices, they will permanently damage the biodiversity of the Indonesian rainforest. Today, much of the rainforest biodiversity has already been damaged as evidenced by the shrinking numbers of Indonesian orangutans. The numbers can be attributed to Japanese MNC harvesting of many various types of wood in the rainforest, but two that are important to the orangutan are the teak and the strangling fig. The orangutan spends much of its life in the canopy of the teak and strangling figs, where it can find protection from predators, and have access to various fruits found in the canopy. As the trees are removed, the orangutan will come under great amounts of pressure to survive, and the pressure, compounded by the poaching efforts of some of the indigenous populations to make some extra money to support their families, places the orangutan in jeopardy of surviving far into the twenty first century.

17. Impact of Trade Restriction:


18. Industry Sector:


19. Exporters and Importers:

INDONESIA and JAPAN Indonesia has become a primary exporter of tropical wood, due to its relatively large tracts of rainforest that have remained in- tact up until the 1970s. The primary importer of the wood (which includes Teak) is Japan, where there is a large market for wood and wood byproducts. The Mitsubishi corporation is one of the primary logging operations in Indonesia, and utilizes the teak to manufacture plywood forms that have approximately three uses as concrete forms at construction sites before they must be disposed of. Mitsubishi also utilizes the Indonesian wood to manufacture other items such as disposable chopsticks and pencils. Over the past thirty years, Japan has slowly deforested must of East Asia■s (included are the Philippines, and Sabah) tropical rainforest, and in time, they will also include Indonesia as one of the deforested East Asian countries.

V. Environment Clusters

20. Environmental Problem Type:

[DEFOR] The biodiversity within the rainforest of Indonesia is one of the most expansive and complex in all of the world. As much of the rainforest is being harvested at a rate of fifty acres per minute, the harvesting threatens to destroy the great amount of species that are found within the forest. The Indonesian tropical forest currently supports approximately 60% of the world's animal and plant species, 90% of all primate species, and represents a storehouse of complex biochemical molecules that are an important source of medicines. While the logging continues, the fragile biodiversity becomes threatened and endangered species such as the orangutan begin to find it an ever increasing struggle to survive. At the present time, many scientist are researching ways for the Indonesian rainforest, and its endangered species to be saved. Organizations such as Greenpeace, World Wildlife Fund, and the Orangutan Foundation International have produced organizational efforts to educate the global public of the ongoing threats to the East Asian rainforests, and how the degradation of the forests may have an indirect or a direct effect on the global population. It is feared that if humankind as a whole does not take notice to the environmental consequences of rainforest degradation, it may face consequences of catastrophic proportion.

21. Name, Type, and Diversity of Species



Diversity:There are between 10,000 and 20,000 that exist in the wild of Borneo and Sumatra

22. Resource Impact and Effect:

LOW and Structural[STRUCT] Indonesia's Ministry of Forestry has set some taxes and regulations upon the Japanese MNC logging practices. However, with Indonesia's need to service its foreign debt, and the fact that Indonesian politics are filled with many corrupt politicians within the Ministry of Forestry, many of the taxes and regulations have been ignored, and the destruction of the biodiversity continues.

23. Urgency and Lifetime:

HIGH and about 50 years If the Indonesian rainforest is not saved, many of its species will become extinct. In the case of the orangutan, Borneo and Sumatra are the only areas of the world where the orangutan can be found in the wild, and once it disappears, it will become extinct permanently. If the orangutan were to become extinct, it would be a great loss to all human beings. That is because of the complex similarities that the orangutan has with human beings. Ninety percent of their DNA matches human DNA, our common gestation period is 275 days, and we both have fingernails rather than claws. Some scientists even believe that orangutans resemble humans more closely than chimpanzees do. The Indonesian orangutans have a lifespan of 45 to 50 years, which is not so different from the human populations in Borneo and Sumatra. They grow to a height of 1.90 meters and a big male orangutan can weigh 90 kilograms. Female orangutans are smaller than their male counterparts, and they start reproducing at the age of 10, while the males are approximately 15 when they reach sexual maturity. The females stay fertile until the age of 30, and they tend to have between three and four babies in a lifetime and never give birth to twins. Once the orangutan offspring reach the ages of between seven and ten, they will leave their mothers to go on and lead a mostly solitary life. After about 30 years the orangutan■s face begins to go black, and their hair begins to fall out.

24. Substitutes:


VI. Other Factors

25. Culture:

YES Much of the Indonesian rainforest was originally inhabited by indigenous tribes that utilized the land for a purely subsistence means. But, as the urban population of Indonesia has grown, the government has sponsored agricultural programs to move the urban farmers to more remote areas of the islands, pushing the indigenous populations to even more remote areas. The Government program includes 2 ha to be given to approximately 6,000 families, so that they are able to farm in a subsistence manner. As the urban families push their way into the rural areas of the Indonesian islands, they not only deforest much of the land so that they can plant their agriculture, but they also displace the indigenous populations that once lived on that very same land.

26. Trans-Boundary Issues:


27. Rights:

YES The indigenous populations have complained in the past of Indonesia's poor forestry practices, and their re-urbanization techniques of moving approximately 6,000 urban families to the outer islands. As the indigenous peoples have become ever angrier, they have turned to illegal activities in order to earn large amounts of money quickly, by engaging in the poaching of endangered animals such as the tiger and the orangutan.

28. Relevant Literature

Bevis, William W. Borneo Log: The Struggle For Sarawak■s Forests. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995. Brookfield, H.C. In Place of the Forest: Environmental and Socio- Economic Transformation in Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula. New York : United Nations University Press, 1995. Carr, Stephen. "Rehabilitating Orangutans." Far Eastern Economic Review, 23 September 1993, 38-39. Cohen, Margot. "Environment in Asia." Far Eastern Economic Review, 17 November 1994, 43-44. Dauvergne, Peter. "The Politics of Deforestation in Indonesia", Pacific Affairs Winter, 1993, 497-518. Galdikas, Birute Marija Filamena. Reflections of Eden: My years with the Orangutans of Borneo. Boston: Little, Brown, 1995. Marchant, Linda F. "The Great Apes Revisited." Current Anthropology, February 1996, 142-147. Morse, Mary. "Orangutan Alert." Utne Reader, July 1993, 48. Nadler, Ronald D. Ed. The Neglected Ape. New York: Plenum Press, 1995. Peluso, Nancy Lee. Rich Forest Poor People: Resource Control and Resistance in Java. Berkley: University of California Press, 1992. Praded, Joni. "Tracking the Red Ape." Animals. March 1989, 18- 23. Thiele, Rainer. "How To Manage Tropical Forests More Sustainably: The Case of Indonesia." Intereconomics, July/August 1994, 184-193. www.bright.net/~petersen/orang1.html; Grungy Link Page www.envirolink:org/orgs/; Envirolink Library www.gurukul.ucc.american.edu/ted/indones.htm; Case Study; Indonesia www.indobiz.com/orang.htm; Borneo-Indonesia Home Page www.indonesiatoday.com/about/index.html; Indonesia Web Site www.indonesiatoday.com/facts/environ.html; Indonesia Web Site www.intranet.ca/~foe/forestry.html; Friends of The Earth www.i-way.co.uk/~janthony/orangutan.html www.ns.net/orangutan www.ns.net:80/orangutan/index/index1.html References 1. www.ns.net/orangutan 2. Peter Dauvergne, "The Politics of Deforestation in Indonesia." Pacific Affairs, Winter 1993, 499. 3. H.C. Brookfield, 1995. In Place of the Forest: Environmental and Socio-Economic Transformation in Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula. (New York: United Nations University Press) 83. 4. William W. Bevis, 1995. Borneo Log: The Struggle For Sarawak■s Forests. (Seattle: University of Washington Press) 94. 5. William W. Bevis, 1995. Borneo Log: The Struggle For Sarawak■s Forests. (Seattle: University of Washington Press) 102. 6. William W. Bevis, 1995. Borneo Log: The Struggle For Sarawak■s Forests. (Seattle: University of Washington Press) 102. 7. H.C. Brookfield, 1995. In Place of the Forest: Environmental and Socio-Economic Transformation in Borneo and the Eastern Malay Peninsula. (New York: United Nations University Press) 97-98. 8. Mary Morse, "Orangutan Alert." Utne Reader, July 1993, 48. 9. Ronald D. Nadler, Ed, 1995. The Neglected Ape. (New York: Plenum Press) 24. 10. Ronald D. Nadler, Ed, 1995. The Neglected Ape. (New York: Plenum Press) 46. 11. Ronald D. Nadler, Ed, 1995. The Neglected Ape. (New York: Plenum Press) 94-95. 12. Ronald D. Nadler, Ed, 1995. The Neglected Ape. (New York: Plenum Press) 47. 13. Ronald D. Nadler, Ed, 1995. The Neglected Ape. (New York: Plenum Press) 48. 14. Ronald D. Nadler, Ed, 1995. The Neglected Ape. (New York: Plenum Press) 20. 15. Ronald D. Nadler, Ed, 1995. The Neglected Ape. (New York: Plenum Press) 20. 16. Rainer Thiele, "How To Manage Tropical Forests More Sustainably: The Case of Indonesia." Intereconomics, July/August 1994, 192. 17. Rainer Thiele, "How To Manage Tropical Forests More Sustainably: The Case of Indonesia." Intereconomics, July/August 1994, 192. 18. Peter Dauvergne, "The Politics of Deforestation in Indonesia." Pacific Affairs, Winter, 1993, 506. 19. Peter Dauvergne, "The Politics of Deforestation in Indonesia." Pacific Affairs, Winter, 1993, 507. 20. Peter Dauvergne, "The Politics of Deforestation in Indonesia." Pacific Affairs Winter, 1993, 515. 21. Peter Dauvergne, "The Politics of Deforestation in Indonesia." Pacific Affairs, Winter, 1993, 515.

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