The Dispute over Amur River between Russia and China and its implication

I. Identification

1. The Issue

There is a long border between China and Russia. In history, there used to be large- scale military conflict for these borders. Since the seventeenth century when Tsarist forces occupied Nerchinsk and Yakasa in the Amur region (north of Mongolia and west of northern Nei Mongol). The eighteenth century saw Russian incursions in the Lake Balkhash area, near Northwest Xinjiang. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Russians had seized a total 1.4 million square kilometers, and another 1.5 million by 1900. The Russians codified these gains through a series of 'unequal treaties,' as current Chinese histories call them.

Beijing government began to challenge Soviet occupation of these disputed areas in 1963, and, with China's demonstration of its nuclear capability in 1964, the military build-up on both sides of the border began in earnest. In Japanese press, Mao was quoted as saying that both Vladivostok and Khabarovsk were on territory that had belonged to China save for 'unequal treaties.'

Soviet ground forces had been augmented in the last half of 1967 in regions bordering China in the Far East and Transbaykal Military Districts. From 1965 to the end of 1969, the USSR increased its deployment of ground forces in the military districts adjacent to the Chinese border from 13 divisions to 21 divisions.

Sharp border clashes between Soviet and Chinese troops occurred in 1969, roughly a decade after relations between the two countries had begun to deteriorate and some four years after a buildup of Soviet forces along China's northern border had begun. The Zhenbao/Demansky Island conflict flared up in March 1969, and then spread from the Ussuri River along the border into Central Asia. Particularly heated border clashes occurred in the northeast along the Sino-Soviet border formed by the Heilong Jiang (Amur River) and the Wusuli Jiang (Ussuri River), on which China claimed the right to navigate.

Nowadays, despite the fact that some basic disputations along the border have been solved by both sides, the fight about two islands in Amur River have been getting fierce. Before the demise of the Soviet Union, China and Soviet Union started to negotiate for the controversial and uncertain borders. The reasons of uncertain border are mainly reagarding to the history since Chinese Chin dynasty. In history, China haven't had clear demarcation until the near times, not to mention the borders of Northeast, Northwest or Southwest where only few people inhabited. In the near times, China faced the invasion from many other countries, Russia especially fiercely in so doing and the best way for evading the charge of "invasion" is to claim uncertain territory.

In 1990s, both sides finished the demarcation of western and eastern borders except two small islands in Amur River. Damansky Island (Jenbao), a place of a military skirmish, demarcated as China's territory. Since these two islands have economic and military value, both sides show no sign to give up. After the demarcation in 1990s, Russia officials said that these two islands should be left for the next generation to solve. But recently, these two islands stirred new wave of arguments.

The names of these two islands are Bolshoi Ussurisky and Tarabarov, located few miles from a big Russian city Khabarovsk. These two islands contain two important meanings. One is the economic value; another is strategic value. Because these two islands are in the center of Amur River, divide Amur River into two sections, these two islands belongs to either side will symbol which side has more control over the Amur River. For hundreds of years, with the change of climate and geography, these two islands and the Russian side has been the main channel. These two islands moved closely to the Chinese side. According to the agreement concerned this area reached by China and Russia in 1990s, the border in Amur River should be divided by the main water channel so that these two islands will belong to China. However, Russia said that according to the Peiking Treaty made by 1860, the border should be divided the area between these two islands and the Chinese side, so that these two islands should belong to Russia. According to research, trout and some cherished fish species act mostly in the main water channel. So who owns these two islands means who can control the economic resources. In term of military strategy, these two islands face the big city, Khabarovsk. Based on the saying of Russian military official, these two islands are the natural barriers for protecting Khabarovsk. Once these two islands belong to China and conflict happened between these two countries. It will be no way to keep Khabarovsk free from safety because Khabarovsk city is too close to these two islands.

The action for obtaining these two islands seemed getting flagrant recently. According to the report of Russia, China sunk boats loaded with sand and rocks in the side of China as well as put sands and rock on top of the icy Amur River. Once spring approaches, the sands and rocks will sink into the waterbed. That will make the water channel become so shallow as to connect with Chinese land and belong to China, which causes the fact that these two islands belong to China territory. In Russia, Russian sent military service in these two islands and encouraged Russian farmers to cultivate crops as well as build resort. Orthodox churches were built in these two islands in memory of the dead soldiers devoted to the fight in 1969.

2. Description

The related issues under this event might be in terms of international law, the change of climate in this area and how close trade in this area that may be the positive or negative factor to influence the result of this disputation. In a bigger frame, how the relations between Russia and China evolve may also provide a reference to this question.

3. Related Cases

There are many cases related with the dispute over borders. Here the related cases are mainly the dispute over islands.

The Kurile Islands

The Kurile Island conflict is a dispute between Russia and Japan over the sovereignty of islands currently under Russian administration.

Spratly Islands

There are six countries claim their rights of ownership in this area.They are Brunei, Taiwan, China, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Philippine

The Falkland Islands

Since 1820, Falkland Islands have been in a centre of sovereignty dispute between Great Britain and Argentina. Although nearly 300 years passed since Argentina last possessed the Falkland Islands, it still continues to struggle for regaining its lost territory.

Diaoyu/ Senkako Islands

Diaoyu Islands are a group of eight uninhabited islands located in the East Asia Sea, nautical miles Northeast of Taiwan and 240 nautical Southwest of the Liu Chiu Islands (Ryukyu Islands, also known as Okinawa), on the Chinese side of the Okinawa shelf. The largest island is two miles long and less than a mile wide.

The Case of Tunb and Abu Musa

The dispute over the islands in the Lower Arabian/Persian Gulf--Abu Musa, Tunb, and Lesser Tunb--is an old issue. In fact, the rivalry between Persia (now Iran) and the Ottoman Empire and the local rulers of the Arab Gulf sheikhdoms dates back to the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1935, Persia was renamed Iran by Reza Shah, who ruled the country from 1921 to 1941, when he was forced by the British to abdicate his throne in favor of his son Mohammed Reza Pahlavi (1941-1979), because of his alleged sympathies with Nazi Germany during World War II.

During his reign, Reza Shah revived Persia's claim to a number of islands in the Lower Gulf, notably Abu Musa and Greater and Lesser Tunbs, which belonged to two small sheikhdoms of the Trucial States, now the United Arab Emirates. Understanding the strategic and economic importance of the Strait of Hormuz, Reza Shah sought to control as much as possible of this waterway. Additionally, red oxide was discovered in commercial quantities on the island of Abu Musa.

Yemen and Eritrea over the Hanish Islands

Greater Hanish is one of three main islands in an archipelago near the southern mouth of the Red Sea, dividing the waterway into two strips little more than 30 miles wide. All shipping from the Suez canal passes the islands to the Indian Ocean. At least since the British occupation of Aden, the islands have generally been regarded as part of Yemen. Eritrean claims to the territory began in earnest only last year, and two rounds of talks had taken place before the invasion. Eritrea's case appears to be based on an earlier Ethiopian claim.

Korea/ Japan Tokdo/ Dokdo islands disputation

The location, which Korea officially calls the "East Sea" and Japan calls the "Sea of Japan," is one of the most important fishing fields for both countries. Even though the line between the countries were lain in 1965, the lines were not specifically settled between countries, but rather each side claimed their own territory by announcing an unilateral line.

Qatar - Bahrain continue dispute over islands

4. Author and Date

Kang- Yao Ma (Spring 2004)

Legal Clusters

5. Discourse and Status

I. China and Kazakhstan Boundary Demarcation

In October 2000, the Sino-Kazakh Joint Boundary Demarcation Committee held a round of negotiations in Beijing and 5 experts group meetings (January in Beijing, March in Alama-Ata, May in Urumchi, July in Alama-Ata and December in Alama-Ata). Both sides examined and accepted the results of the field boundary demarcation and laid a good foundation for the completion on time of the Sino-Kazakh boundary demarcation.

1. China and Kirghizstan Boundary Demarcation

In June and November 2000, the Chinese and the Kirghiz sides held in Biskek and Beijing the 1st and 2nd sessions of the Sino-Kirghiz Joint Boundary Demarcation Committee. Both sides drafted documents concerning the Sino-Kirghiz boundary demarcation, worked out a time table for the boundary demarcation and ascertained the positions and quantity of boundary markers to be erected.

2. The Sino-Tadzhiki Boundary Agreement Going into Force

On August 13, 1999, China and Tadzhikistan signed in Dalian the Agreement between the People?s Republic of China and the Republic of Tadzhikistan on the Sino-Tadzhiki Boundary. Afterwards, both sides respectively completed the domestic legal procedure for the inurement of the agreement. On July 4, 2000, both sides exchanged instruments of ratification in Dushanbe, Capital of Tadzhikistan and the agreement formally went into force.

3. The Sino-Vietnamese Land Boundary Treaty Going into Force

On December 30, 1999, China and Vietnam signed in Hanoi the Treaty between the People?s Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam on Land Boundary. Afterwards, both sides respectively completed the domestic legal procedure for the inurement of the treaty. On July 6, 2000, both sides exchanged instruments of ratification. The treaty formally went into force.

4. China and Vietnam Land Boundary Demarcation

In August and November 2000, the Chinese and Vietnamese sides held two meetings in Hanoi and Beijing, announced the formal establishment of the Sino-Vietnamese Joint Boundary Demarcation Committee and started drafting the relevant legal documents. In December 2000, both sides completed the survey and production of the maps for the boundary demarcation. The Sino-Vienamese field land boundary demarcation would unfold in an all round way in the latter half of 2001.

5. The Negotiation on the Boundary Agreement between China and the Joint Delegation of Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan and Tadzhikistan

In March and May 2000, the 15th and 16th round of talks of the Boundary Agreement Drafting Group of China and the Joint Delegation of Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan and Tadzhikistan were held respectively in Beijing and Moscow. Both sides negotiated and completed the Agreement between the People's Republic of China, Tadzhikistan and Kirghizstan on the Boundary Tripoint of the Three Countries and the attached maps.

On July 5, during the Summit Meeting of China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan and Tadzhikistan, President Jiang Zemin and President Lahmonov of Tadzhikistan and President Akayev of Kirghizstan formally signed the above agreement and the attached maps in Dushanbe, Capital of Tadzhikistan.

6. The Negotiation between China and Korea on the

Agreement on the Border Ports and Their Management Regime. In October 2000, the Chinese and Korean sides held the 3rd round of negotiations in Beijing on the Chinese and Korean border ports and their management regime. Both sides completed the drafting of the Agreement between People?s Republic of China and the Democratic People?s Republic of Korea on the Border Ports and Their Management Regime and initialed it and readied it to be signed by both sides.

7. The Negotiation between China, Korea and Russia on the Boundary Tripoint between the Three Countries

In February 2000, the Chinese, Korean and Russian sides held the 8th round of talks in Moscow on ascertaining the boundary tripoint between the three countries. In October 2000, the Chinese and the Korean sides held a bilateral meeting in Beijing on the boundary tripoint between China, Korea and Russia.

8. The Experts Consultations between China and Mongolia on the 2nd Joint Inspection

In March 2000, the Chinese and Mongolian sides held experts consultation in Beijing on the 2nd joint inspection of the Sino-Mongolian boundary. Both sides initially decided that they would respectively make organizational, technical and financial preparations within this year and would formally start the 2nd joint inspection of the Sino-Mongolian boundary in 2001.

9. Talks on the Implementation of the Sino-Burmese Agreement on Boundary Management and Cooperation

In December 2000, the Chinese and the Burmese sides held in Rangoon the 2nd round of meetings at department and bureau chief level on the implementation of the Sino-Burmese Agreement on Boundary Management and Cooperation. Both sides amicably reviewed the management and cooperation of the boundary of the two countries, decided to repair and restore as soon as possible the damaged boundary markers and agreed to continue to reinforce boundary management and cooperation.

10. Talks on the Implementation of the Sino-Laotian Treaty on Boundary Regime

In October 2000, the Chinese and Laotian sides held in Vientiane the 1st session of the Joint Implementation Committee , reviewed in an all round way the implementation of the Treaty on Boundary Regime and its supplementary protocol and reached unanimity on safeguarding the alignment of the boundary, strengthening border law and order and the promotion of the development of the economy and trade in the border area.

11. The Sino-Kazakh Experts Consultation on Transboundary Rivers

In May 2000, the Chinese and the Kazakh sides held experts consultations in Beijing, set up the Experts Joint Working Group on Transboundary Rivers and exchanged views over issues relating to the transboundary rivers.

6. Forum and Scope

The Russia-China Friendship and Cooperation Treaty:

The motivations behind this new treaty are much more complex and involve serious geopolitical, military, and economic considerations. In a sense, this treaty is a logical product of the improvement in Sino-Russian relations that began under the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, and continued under Boris Yeltsin.

The 2001 Russia-China treaty, which covers five important areas of cooperation:

Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)

2001 On June 14, Russia, China, and four Central Asian states announced the creation of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), an arrangement ostensibly aimed at confronting Islamic radical fundamentalism and promoting economic development. Together, the agreements portend an important evolving geopolitical transformation for Russia and China, two regional giants who are positioning themselves to define the rules under which the United States, the European Union, Iran, and Turkey will be allowed to participate in the strategically important Central Asian region. (http://www.heritage.org/Research/RussiaandEurasia/BG1459.cfm)

APEC

September 12, 1999, in Auckland, New Zealand, President Jiang Zemin met with Russian Prime Minister Putin on the sidelines of the Informal Leadership meeting of APEC. Putin expressed the willingness to expand economic cooperation and trade between the two countries and reiterated Russia's consistent one-China stand on the Taiwan question.

There are also numerous meetings and letters exchanged between these two countries.(http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zzjg/dozys/gjlb/3220/t16725.htm)

7. Decision Breadth

The Influence of U.S

The desire to counter U.S. global supremacy and the West's pressure on both countries regarding the rights of independence-seeking ethnic minorities (and human rights in general) furnished much of the impetus for a friendship treaty between Russia and China as well as the creation of the so-called Shanghai-6 Organization (SCO). The parties of this organization vehemently oppose the policy of NATO-led "humanitarian interventions," such as the Kosovo war, which was not sanctioned by the U.N. Security Council.

Chairman Jiang has repeatedly declared that "hegemonism and power politics" are the "main source of threat to world peace and stability" as well as China's interests. Beijing is clearly interested in curtailing the U.S.-led condemnations and sanctions of China for human rights, as in the aftermath of the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre. Furthermore, Russia and China are both seeking to safeguard their status as two of the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council. Finally, they are working to boost each other's military potential as well as that of other countries that pursue anti-American foreign policies, such as Iran and Iraq.

8. Legal Standing

I. A General Survey of the Treaties Concluded between China and other countries

In the year of 2000, China concluded some 330 state and governmental bilateral treaties and agreements (or other instruments with full features of treaties) with other countries , more important among which were 222 economic and trade treaties (and exchange of notes), 22 financial treaties, 26 political treaties, 10 consular treaties, 9 legal agreements and agreements covering the fields of culture, health, science and technology, communications and post and telecommunications; China also concluded 6 multilateral treaties with other countries (for details, please refer to the attached table). Besides, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, with authorization of the Central Government, concluded 10 bilateral agreements with foreign countries.

II. A General Survey of China's Cleaning Up of Treaties Concluded with Other Countries

The cleaning up of treaties is to confirm, revise or terminate the validity of the treaties signed between states, based on the theory of the international law , particularly the theory of the treaty law and in view of the actual situation of the state. Starting from 1991, China has been systematically cleaning up the treaties. Up to the present, China has done the relevant work with 10 countries such as Germany, Czech, Slovenia and Russia. This work is of positive significance in clarifying the validity of the treaties, resolving the state of uncertainty of the validity of the treaties and promoting the development of relations between China and the relevant countries.

 

Geographic Clusters

9. Geographic Locations

Northeast Asia

10. Sub- National Factors:

Northeast Asia

11. Geographhic Impact:

China, Russia

Trade Clusters

Foreign trade is increasing importance in the economy of the Khabarovsk Krai, providing solutions to many of the problems of the structural reorganization, the technical re-equipment of production, the provision of the industries with their most important materials and providing the population with foods and consumer goods that are needed.
Traditionally, a significant part of the export-import ties were oriented towards Japan. Since the beginning of the 1980s, border ties with China have rapidly developed. China has become the leading trade partner with the Khabarovsk Krai Area, and is still rapidly developing. In recent years, the trade and cooperative relations with the Eastern Europe countries have reduced significantly, while on the contrary, the share of the Pacific countries, the USA, the Republic of Korea, Australia, New Zealand and Singapore have sharply increased.

Export of the Khabarovsk Krai products as per countries

Country Products
Japan Timber, lumber, processing chips, fish, scraps of ferrous and nonferrous metals, aluminum alloys and petroleum products
China Machinery and equipment, timber, lumber, ferrous metals rolled stock, fish, fertilizers, scraps of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, consumer goods, cellulose and cardboard
Republic of Korea Timber, rolled stock, fish products, concentrates of non-ferrous metals

Raw materials (oil products, timber, fish and metals) form the basis of export. At the same time, the export potential of the Krai allows for an increase of the export of machinery and equipment, lumber, furniture, cellulose, cardboard, aluminum rolled stock, tailored goods and other kinds of products.
The major branch of the export specialization of the Krai is the timber industry, where the main objective is to increase the export of timber with the constant growth of share of processed wood products in the total volume. Meanwhile, the cost of the processed timber (cellulose, cardboard, lumber and processing chips) is still 3 times less than the cost of raw timber export.
In recent years, new kinds of products appeared in the export of the Krai, including copper concentrate, aluminum alloys, cardboard, personal motor boats, launches and yachts.

Export potential of prominent products

Product Unit Export Potential
Timber thd.cu.m 3000
Lumber thd.cu.m. 150
Cellulose thd.t. 80
Oil products Ferrous metals thd.t. 1000
Rolled stock thd.t. 150
Fish thd.t. 80
Copper & tin concentrates thd.t. 100

Consumer goods (30%), foodstuffs and raw materials for production of foodstuffs (31%) are the major imports of the Krai. Machines, equipment and vehicles are also imported (30%).

Largest exporters of the Khabarovsk Krai

Enterprise Products
Dalles Timber & timber products
Solnechny Mining & Dressing Integrated Works Copper & tin concentrates
Komsomolski Oil-Refinery Works Oil products
"Amurstal" Plant Ferrous metals
Dallesprom Timber & timber products
JV "Vostokmetall" Aluminum alloys
Amur River Steamship Company Transportation services
IA "Amurskbumprom" Cellulose, cardboard
JV "Daltelecom International" Communication services

12. Resource Effect and Impact (Direct and indirect)

The valuable resources in this area for foodstuffs and export are fishes. At present, four foreign invasive species are revealed in the Amur basin. The two species, riverperch and common pikeperch have appeared in the Amur basin as a result of intentional introduction, penetration of two more species has probably by chance. Thus during the 1960s the spotted bighead was found in the Lower Amur and in Lake Khanka as well transferred by chance from the South China territory. During the 1970s okhetobius penetrated into the Amur probably from the Chinese fisheries on Lake Khanka. Earlier it inhabited East Asia.

River perch was first introduced as 160, 000 individuals into the Upper Amur basin from the Vitim basin in 1919. Three years later perch became the main commercial fish on Lake Kenon. Since the 1950s this perch has been spreading over the whole Amur basin, especially over the lakes on the Upper Amur territory. At present perch inhabits the whole Amur basin, preferring flood- plain and other lakes. In 1971- 1974 and 1980 pikeperch was introduced from Latvia into Lake Khanka. The process of establishing lasted to the beginning of the 1990s and by the second half of the 1990s catches of pikefish varied from 3 to 24 tons a year. From Lake Khanka pikeperch has penetrated into and spread over the rivers Ussuri and Amur.

17. Industry Sector

Major industries include timberworking and fishing. Khabarovsk Territory is one of the largest wood raw material regions in the country. The wood stock of the Territory makes quarter of the stock on the Far East and more than 6% of the stock in Russia as a whole. The total area covered with forests is 52,5 million hectares, the reserves of mature and over-mature forests are 3,14 billion cubic meters. The forests in the Territory are very diverse on structure, but coniferous forests prevail, occupying up to 80% wood area. The northern half territory of the region concerns to a light coniferous wood zone, in which a few kinds of larch and pine dominate. To the south a subzone of dark coniferous woods with highly productive fir-larch plantings is stretched. The Sredneamurskaya plain and the neighboring mountain slopes concern to a subzone of coniferous - deciduous woods. It is the most productive wood. The characteristic wood breed in them is a cedar pine (Korean "cedar"). In the subzone there are industrial stocks of valuable firm- leafy breeds

The Khabarovsk krai is also rich in fish. The main fishing grounds are the Amur river, coastal waters of the Tatarsky Gulf and the Okhotskoe Sea. Over 100 rivers of the Krai serve as spawning grounds for salmon and sturgeon. Besides, large and medium fishing vessels operate in the waters of the Okhotskoe Sea and Bering Sea, in areas of the Western and Eastern Kamchatka, Northern and Southern Kurils, Eastern Sakhalin. More than 100 kinds of fish live in the Amur river. The most important for fishing are salmons (hunchback salmon, fall and spring Siberian salmon), sturgeon (kaluga - Amur sturgeon), large and small fry, smelt, lamprey. In coastal waters they fish for salmon, herring (spawning), capelin, flounder, sea-kale.

18. Exports and Imports

General information about commodity circulation

 

Environmental Cluster

19. Environmental Problem Type

Amur river is one of the largest rivers in North East Asia. In the world's rating it occupies the 9 th place on length, 4444 kilomiters and the 10 th on basin's area, 1,85 million square kilometers. It is formed as a result of Shilka and Argun rivers junction on the territory of Chitinskaya oblast. The largest objects of the basin are: rivers Zeya, Bureya, Sungari, Ussury, Amgun, Khanka lake.
Spatially the basin is situated on the territories of three countries - Russia (53% of basin's area), China, Mongolia (47%). From this point of view Amur has transboundary and international significance.

More than 75 million people live in Amur river's basin, more than 90% of the population accounts to China.
It predetermines difficulties in establishing of coordinating regulations for protection and usage of water, biological and other resources, not to mention the projects of economic development.

Amur wetland complex is a place of fish shoals reproduction and the most important migratory corridor for millions of birds.
As an object of world-famous value Amur wetlands complex was acknowledged as one of the most priority freshwater ecoregions of a planet.
In the Amur basin there is a border where passes a border of several large natural zones. Being on a joint of biogeographical zones it differs by a high biological variety. Within the Russian part of the basin dwell more than 2800 kinds of vascular, about 380 kinds of birds, 23 kinds of amphibians and reptiles, more than 70 kinds of mammals.

Unfortunately, under influence of the person a lot of species became rare. 400 supreme plants, 40 kinds of insects, 5 - amphibians and reptiles, 27 kinds of birds are brought in to the Red book of Russia. 167 kinds of plants and mushrooms, 127 kinds of animals are brought in to the Red book of Khabarovsk territory. Among them there are rare kinds brought in the International Red book of IUCN.
In Amur wetland complex nest about 95 % of the Far Eastern storks, 65 % of Japanese and 50 % of daurskiye cranes population.
Amur and its flood-lands have a major meaning as a habitat, migratory corridors and a nest place of richest fish shoals. In Amur dwell more than 100 kinds of freshwater fish, including 7 kinds of pacific salmon and 2 kinds of sturgeon. Just here there is still a largest sturgeon of the world - Kaluga, which weight can exceed a ton.

It is obvious, that the usage of natural resources should be coordinated with the tasks of environmental protection and preservation of river ecosystem. Men's habitat quality depends on it.

At the same time the best scripts of interstate cooperation assume them exhausted and wide transformation of the river, for example, by joint creation of dams and other engineering structures. Basic principle of mutual relation should be economic growth with preservation of environment quality, natural ecosystems.

Basic ecoresourse problems of Amur:

1. Pollution of natural waters and deterioration of water resources quality by:

2. Presence in water of viruses and bacterial that activate illnesses
3. Low water content.
4. Intensive wash out of the left coast near Khabarovsk.
5. Exhaustible character of nature usage (water, water-biological land and wood resources).
6. Reduction of kinds of the vegetative and animal world
7. Social intensity, in particular among the village population and radical small peoples of North in connection with deterioration of quality of water, fish, and also reduction of natural resources.
8. Accompanying negative processes and phenomena: (1) Not enough investigated threats of Japanese and Okhotsk seas pollution (2) Dust storms, as a consequence of intensive land tenure and disafforestation in Sungary basin (3) Exhaustion of the soil

20. Name, Type and Diversity of Species:

Rare and endangered species include: Mammals: Himalayan black bear, Amur tiger, Far Eastern Stork, Black stork, whopper swan, swan goose, pochard, mandarin duck, Chinese merganser osprey, steller's sea eagle, gray- faced buzzard, golden eagle, peregrine falcon, Siberian spruce grouse, black crane, Japanese crane; Reptile: Far Eastern tortoise

Fish stocks - major, invaluable economic resource of Amur, which during the last century was thoroughly undermined as a result of excessive fishing, pollution of environment and construction of hydrostructures. Catching of valuable breeds of fish in the great river made -100 thousands tons of salmon (1910), and 1, 2 thousand tons of sturgeon (record fishing 1891). For the last century catching of sturgeon and salmon were reduced more than in 10 times and today require a special programs on guards and reproduction.

 

Information sources

Website:

http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zzjg/tyfls/tyfl/2626/t15460.htm

http://www.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/wjb/zzjg/tyfls/tyfl/2626/t15464.htm

Data Resources:

http://www.adm.khv.ru/invest2.nsf/pages/ftradechar_en.htm

http://trade.russiansoft.com/index.php?chapter=1000projects&region_id=30

http://www.slavweb.com/eng/Russia/feast-e.html

http://tpspb.frinet.org/links/business

http://tpspb.frinet.org/links/business.asp

http://www.adm.khv.ru/Invest2.nsf/folders/General-en.htm

http://www.lars2.org/unedited_papers/unedited_paper/Slynko%20Amur.pdf

http://www.arabicnews.com/

http://www.adm.khv.ru/invest2.nsf/pages/common/amur_en.htm

http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200212/03/eng20021203_107822.shtml