CASE NAME:DISPOSABLE CHOPSTICK PRODUCTION
1. The IssueTwo Japanese multinational corporations are involved in the degradation of the Northwestern Canadian forest. The two corporations are the Mitsubishi and Daishowa Keiretsu, that are involved in the harvesting of the old growth, boreal forest in both Alberta and BC. The harvesting is mainly done through clearcutting methods that are environmentally damaging because they speed up erosion, pollute fisheries and streams, destroy travel corridors for the animals which inhabit the forest, and damage the indigenous population's culture and lifestyle. The harvesting of the boreal forest by the corporations is mainly for the prized aspen tree, utilized for building materials in Japan, disposable paper products and disposable chopsticks which are also known as waribashi in Japan. If better forest management agreements cannot be found in the near future to protect the boreal temperate rainforest, it will become extinct with no hope of recovery for the future.
2. DescriptionMNCs and Clearcutting: There is an ongoing problem involving the clearcut deforestation of much of the forests of the provinces of British Columbia and Alberta Canada. Large Japanese multinational logging corporations continually sign forest management agreements with the British Columbia and the Alberta Governments, that allow for a large part of the boreal temperate rainforest located in the two provinces to be harvested. As the forest is harvested for disposable chopsticks and pulp and paper products, Canada is losing a vital resource. Adding to Canada's forestry problems is that the logging has caused severe environmental problems such as rapid erosion, water pollution and displacement of indigenous populations. The Japanese MNCs have recently turned to Canada to obtain the wood they desperately need, because they have already destroyed much of Japanžs natural forest, and most of the indigenous wood that remains in the country is protected by the Japanese Government. With the lack of its own wood, one would think that the Japanese people would hold the resource as a precious entity, but this is quite the contrary. Much of the wood that is taken from Canada is utilized for plywood as concrete forms, and for disposable chopsticks that can be found in Tokyo restaurants. The waste of Canadian wood is compounded by multibillion dollar land giveaways to the Mitsubishi and Daishowa Corporations by the Alberta and B.C. Governments. The giveaways have totaled 100,000 sq. miles, or ten percent of Alberta's total land mass, and if one were to compare that total it would be larger then the land areas of Connecticut, Rhode Island, Delaware, Massachusetts, Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia combined. The current land giveaways that total an estimated U.S.$1.1 billion are very important to Alberta, since it is currently increasing taxes across the board to pay for a budget deficit. But many of the indigenous Albertans are upset that once the lumber is processed by the Japanese MNCs into plywood, chopsticks and paper, its worth will balloon to U.S.$8.2 billion. The large amount of profit has concerned the Albertan citizens, and has caused them to take notice of the exact damage being inflicted upon their land by the Japanese MNCs, and if the estimated U.S.$1.1 billion is actually a sufficient price to pay for environmental degradation. The Canadian government has historically undervalued its timber, often allowing foreign logging corporations to generate profits much higher than would be possible anywhere else in the world. That was due to Canada's fear that the loss of its logging dominance would damage its U.S.$23 billion per year industry, leading to more than one million Canadian loggers losing their livelihoods. As the fears surmounted, the governments of Alberta and British Columbia have virtually given away the rights to over 221,000 sq kilometers of boreal forest, and have embarked on FMA's (i.e.; forest management agreements), that provide immense benefits to MNCs for their clearcutting practices, thus severely damaging the provincežs boreal forest. While the clearcutting continues, 80% of what has been logged in Alberta has occurred in the last 25 years causing massive erosion, U.S.$80 million in lost forest productivity per year, damage to salmon fisheries and streams, and the destruction of sacred native sites. It is estimated that each year, 3.8 million hectares of Canadian forest is not regulated satisfactorily, and this must be changed if Canada's boreal forests are to be saved, because the forest is worth more to the planet as a biodiverse ecosystem, than as pulp and paper or disposable chopsticks. Mitsubishi's effort of clearcutting large tracts of forest have not slowed, and even though the Japanese MNC claims it only contributes to .04% of the global timber industry, it is actually harvesting much more timber than that. In fact, Mitsubishi is one of the oldest corporations involved in the logging of both the southern rainforests of South America and Eastern Asia, and the northern temperate forests of Canada and Siberia, and it remains a primary creator of dirty, dangerous, and unsustainable technologies worldwide. Why is Clearcutting Occurring?: The destruction of one hundred year old Aspen trees in Alberta and B.C. is increasing, and the products that are produced from the timber by Mitsubishi do not seem to warrant the type of environmental destruction that is occurring. Much of the Canadian lumber is utilized to produce disposable eating utensils (e.g.; chopsticks) known in Japan as waribashi, plywood forms for concrete at construction sites, and cardboard for oversized compact disc packaging for the music industry. The waribashi are produced for Japanese sushi bars, noodle shops, and fast food restaurants that have become quite common in Japan, but Japan is not the only user of disposable chopsticks, and they can be found in restaurants in the U.S., France and Italy. Mitsubishi and Daishowa's world disposable chopstick production stands at approximately 20 billion pair per year, and the high production is due to the fact that many Japanese people do not wish to use a chopstick that has been utilized by another individual, because they believe that the chopstick was given to them by the gods, and are therefore sacred and held in high regard. The Mitsubishi and Daishowa corporations have made tremendous profits on the disposable utensil market, and the RAN (i.e.; Rainforest Action Network) has stated that Mitsubishi has currently captured one third of the market. To keep pace with the high demand of the disposable chopstick market, Mitsubishi produces 8 million chopsticks per day, which translates into a large amount of Aspens that are cut to provide the wood for the chopsticks. In addition to disposable chopsticks, Mitsubishi is utilizing the Canadian boreal forest to produce pulp and paper products, and wood for the construction of houses and plywood forms for concrete molds. The Aspen tree, which is found in the Canadian forest is highly prized for its pulp, which has lead to the tree's quick disappearance. The high speed logging of the Aspens is due to the fact that they tend to rot quickly, and if rotting occurs, it will reduce the strength and brightness of the pulp, producing substandard paper products. Another factor in the harvesting of the Canadian forest, is that the Aspen must be unblemished because chopstick manufacturers, and Japanese builders demand unblemished wood without knots or scars. If the wood were to have a knot or a scar it would not be utilized and thrown away. The wasteful practice by the Japanese MNCs of throwing away scarred wood, is a concern for many ecologists who believe that Japanese MNC wood consumption patterns should change. But, Japan cannot bear the entire blame for poor consumption patterns of timber, because the entire industrialized world is somewhat to blame for many wasteful consumption patterns that should be altered if the forests are to survive. Where is the clearcutting most prevalent? The most prevalent clearcutting by Mitsubishi and Daishowa is located in the Western Alberta and Eastern B.C. provinces in the Canadian Rockies. In the Canadian Rocky Mountains, there is the Wood Buffalo National Park along the Peace River, where there are fifty foot tall strands of Aspen trees that are coveted by logging companies for their fine grain and pulp quality. When traveling the Peace River, one would have no idea of the type of degradation occurring approximately 10 to 15 miles beyond the "beauty strip," along the Peace River. Once one travels beyond the so called beauty strip, they can find the evidence of massive clearcuts that result in the beginning of hazardous erosion within the landscape of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Another area of concern within Alberta is the James River, where U.S.$5 billion in pulp and paper plants have been proposed, that would make them some of the largest in the world. The plants would be built by Mitsubishi and Daishowa to harvest the timber in the James River region that the two MNCs hold a 20 year lease comprising of 221,000 sq km, or roughly 15% of Alberta's total land mass, equivalent to the size of the U.K.'s land mass. If the MNCs follow through with their proposed plants, the Canadian Science Council predicts that "one eighth of Canada's productive forest will deteriorate to the point where huge tracts lie devastated, unable to regenerate a merchantable crop within the next sixty to eighty years," and every year after some 200,000 to 400,000 ha will be added to the total amount of devastated land. The devastation of clearcutting has not been limited to the James or the Peace Rivers exclusively. Other regions that have been effected by clearcutting are the Slocum Valley, New Denver, Silverton Village and Clayoqout Sound. Many of the regions have experienced biodiversity problems due to improper timber extraction, especially in terms of their watersheds, because much of the earthžs natural sponge, the forest, is gone. Without the trees to absorb the rainwater, the runoff levels to the streams and rivers will increase, and many of the logging roads that parallel the streams and rivers will erode. The resulting sedimentary runoff will make its way into the valley's watersheds, chocking and polluting them to the point where much of the fish will die. The death of Canada's rivers and streams is a concern for many Canadian politicians and businessmen, because the burgeoning industry of eco-tourism may face hazardous consequences. The eco- tourism industry in Alberta and B.C. currently employs at least 100,000 people, or about 9% of the workforce, and is the third largest industry in the two provinces behind oil and gas, and in the next few years, it will become the leading industry in Northwest Canada. Environmental Concerns from Clearcutting: Many of the implications related to clearcutting in Alberta and B.C. have both an environmental and economic impact. The economic impact involves the depletion of unsustainable resources and the loss of eco-tourism. The environmental impact includes the destruction of Salmon and Bull Trout fisheries, the spreading of erosion to newly logged mountainsides, and the loss of gateways for movement for the Grizzly Bear, Caribou and Elk. The loss of animal travel gateways in Alberta and B.C. poses a threat to the various species of the Northwest Canadian forest because the caribou, deer and elk have found themselves in new states of vulnerability, because they cannot find protection from inclimate weather or natural predators. Also, the grizzly bear has suffered from the loss of travel corridors, because the bears are very large animals which must range over a broad area in order to find food, and mix with different genetic stock for breeding. The clearcuts are not the only source of environmental degradation that are destroying the B.C. and Alberta forests. Other damage is being caused by the erection of massive pulp mills that are dumping thousands of tons of toxic waste into Canadažs northern rivers daily. An example of the pollution is on the Great Mackenzie River, that has turned into a chemical sewer of pulp mill discharge. That is because the pulp and paper industry is one of Canadažs worst polluters of the environment, due to its drive to turn trees into paper and, it has developed a dangerous chemical dependency for organo-chlorine, used to bleach the wood to prepare it for paper production. In both Alberta and B.C., the pulp industry has been spewing approximately 150,000 tons of organo- chlorine chemicals into the rivers and coastal waters because of the chlorine bleaching processes, and even though MNCs like Mitsubishi claim to have been reducing their organo-chlorine production, they have conversely doubled production, causing even greater environmental hazards. The environmental hazards in Northwest Canada from the pulp processing and clearcuts by the timber MNCs have manifested without any clear and successful programs to regenerate the old growth forest for future generations. The Canadian Government has engaged in programs of forest regeneration that include various tree plantations, but often the inappropriate plantation of a singular species of saplings cannot successfully recreate the intricate diversity,found in the Canadian forest, and the plantations often fail. Another reason for regrowth failure is that the inappropriate replanting is caused by the logging industry's desire for quicker harvest rotation cycles of the various trees in Northwest Canada. Many environmentalists believe that the old growth forest needs approximately 200 years to mature before it can be harvested, but the timber MNCs are trying to create a cycle of between 60 and 120 years to increase their yields and raise their profitability. The inappropriate replanting efforts and the shortened harvest cycles have become an unnatural disturbance, in which the forest cannot absorb its environmental consequences. With the allowing of heightened harvest activity and inappropriate replanting, Northwest Canada has earned itself the nickname "the Brazil of the North." That is because both Canada and Brazil have similar overall land masses, witnessed similar amounts of hectares destroyed by forestry, and have similar amounts of indigenous populations that reside in their forests (see table 1). Therefore, without some sort of program of managed forestry, deforestation and environmental degradation can become a severe problem for any country, whether that country is considered developed like Canada or developing like Brazil. Table 1: Canadian and Brazilian Deforestation Comparison Size of Canada: 9.9 million square kilometers Size of Brazil: 8.5 million square kilometers Percent of Canada covered by forest: 45% Percent of Brazil covered by Amazon rainforest: 41% Hectares of forest cleared in Canada in 1988 (latest figures available; 1990 will be similar or higher): 1,021,619 Hectares of Brazilian Amazon cleared or burned in 1990: 1,382,000 Amount of productive Canadian forest that is now either barren or žnot sufficiently restockedž after clearcutting: 10.3% Amount of Brazilian rainforest that has disappeared: 12% Estimated number of Indians and Metis in Canadažs boreal forest: 100,000 Estimated number of Indians in the Amazonian forest: 170,000 Amount of forest officially protected in Canada: 2.6% In Brazil: 9.4% Source: Brazil of The North and Equinox Magazine, Forestry Statistics Canada, 1992 State of the World Report. Indigenous Populations effected: Clearcutting techniques within the timber industry not only do great damage to the biodiversity of the Northwest Canadian forest, but also damage the well being of the indigenous populations of the region. The indigenous peoples that have become effected include the Dene Tha, Lubicon Lake Nation, Bigstone Cree, Algonquin, Haidu and Nuu-Chah-Nulth, all of whom utilize the streams of the forest for fishing salmon and trout, and the land in the forests for hunting animals and obtaining berries and herbs to sustain their culturežs survival. In addition to food resources that have become damaged by the timber industry, examples of indigenous displacement have also occurred to the Lubicon Indian Nation. In 1988, the Lubicon Nation was told by the Alberta Government "that the largest pulp mill in Canada would be built on 105 kilometers of land, west of the Lubicon community of Little Buffalo Lake." The proposed mill would have the capacity to process 11,000 trees per day, and more than 4 million trees per year. The trees were to have been taken from a timber lease that the Alberta Government granted to Daishowa, that blanketed the 4,000 square mile Lubicon territory. The Lubicon people are also some of the poorest in Canada, and many live in third world conditions, but the conditions have not stopped the Alberta Government in their efforts to give away Lubicon land to Daishowa in the form of subsidies for timber extraction in excess of U.S.$74.7 million. The land give away is allowed to occur because the Lubicon are a small, poor population whose voice has been dampened by the Alberta Government and Daishowa. In the past year, there have been ongoing national protests to try and save the Lubicon land, and in 1996 "there was a major international campaign to block Daishowa's clearcutting of Lubicon land until land claims are settled and a cutting agreement is reached to respect wildlife and environmental concerns." In addition to the Lubicon, a second group of indigenous peoples are also threatened by the Mitsubishi and Daishowa clearcutting, and they are the Bigstone Cree Indians, which are the largest band of Indians in Northern Alberta. The Cree Indians have recently become concerned with the possibility of pollution from one of Mitsubishižs pulp mills discharging pollutants into the Athabaska River. The Cree are dependent upon the Athabaska watershed for the fishing of salmon, trout and the trapping of game, and Mitsubishi's mill is in the process of destroying the river that will eventually damage or destroy the Cree food sources and culture. The Bigstone Cree Indians believe that they have only one method of salvaging their main source of food (i.e.; the Athabaska River) and that is to take Mitsubishi to court in Alberta on water rights claims. That strategy could be the best one for the Cree, if they can prove they depend upon the Athabaska watershed as a means of survival, but if they cannot, then the indigenous population's culture might face the possibility of continued pulp mill pollution and an extinction of the Athabaska watershed, which would mean the extinction of the Cree people as well. Regardless of whether the Lubicon Nation or the Bigstone Cree Indians can succeed in stopping the operation of the two mills of Mitsubishi or Daishowa, the production techniques of the mills should be slowed and reformed. Many residents of Canada believe that the long term survival of the Northwestern forest outweighs any economic gains that Northwestern Canada will have by allowing unsustainable forestry to manifest. The Canadians feel their future is tied to the health of the environment, and the clearcutting and pulp production have caused the Canadian forests to suffer and become ill, and a cure to the suffering and illness should be found to assure that in the future, all Canadians can rely on the forest for clean water and healthy food sources. Possible Solutions for Northwest Canada: A final method that can be utilized to protect the Canadian forest is for the citizens of Canada, and the world, to realize and understand the various facets of corporate propaganda, or žGreenwashž techniques MNCs use to make themselves appear environmentally friendly. The techniques include the appearance of an MNC becoming newly committed to environmentalism, in the forms of proposed new waste management techniques, and product manufacturing efficiencies. By utilizing the greenwash propaganda, the MNC attempts to make itself appear to be the new protectors of the environment, rather than the polluters of the planet. One should not always be persuaded by the 180 degree turn of events for the MNCs, because the damage they have already inflicted upon the planet has been so severe, and in many cases irreversible.
3. Related CasesUSWOOD Case CHOPSTICK Case USCANADA Case NEMATODE Case MALAY Case CHILE Case THAILOG Case INDONES Case TAIGA Case SIBERIA Case TEAK Case
4. Draft Author:Jason R. Miller 2/20/97
II. Legal Clusters
5. Discourse and Status:DISagreement and INPROGress
6. Forum and Scope:CANADA and BILATERAL Many preservation organizations are involved in an effort to save the Northwest Canadian temperate rainforest such as the Valhalla Society and Greenpeace.
7. Decision Breadth:2 (Canada and Japan) Japanese multinational corporations (Keiretsu) like the Mitsubishi and Daishowa corporations continually sign forest management agreements with the Alberta and British Columbia Governments to harvest the temperate old growth rainforests through massive clearcutting techniques. That form of environmental degradation has been allowed to run rampant through the Northwest Canadian forests, causing excessive erosion due to the building of thousands of miles of dirt logging roads. Therefore, when rain and snow runoff occur, there is an excess amount of water flowing to the rivers and streams, and that will cause an increase in sediment buildup in the rivers and streams. As a result, many endangered salmon and bull trout fisheries are running the risk of being destroyed because of the clearcutting, while much of the harvested wood is utilized for disposable chopsticks (waribashi), and pulp and disposable paper products.
8. Legal Standing:SUBLAW The laws enacted by the Alberta and B.C. Governments allow the corporations to log areas of Alberta and British Columbia in a managed effort for between 20 and 90 years (forest management agreements.) The forest management agreements allow the logging MNCs to have virtually total control over the land that the agreements are signed for. The discretion that the agreements give to the MNCs allows the MNCs to harvest the Northwest Canadian forests through the methods of clearcutting, and the only limits which the agreements place upon the MNCs are for how many hectares can be harvested, and how many trees per hectare can be harvested.
III. Geographic Clusters
9. Geographic Locations
a. Geographic Domain: NORTH AMERICA
b. Geographic Site: NORTHERN NORTH AMERICA
c. Geographic Impact: CANADA
10. Sub-National Factors:NO
11. Type of Habitat:TEMPERATE
IV. Trade Clusters
12. Type of Measure:Licensing[LICEN]
13. Direct v. Indirect Impacts:DIRect
14. Relation of Trade Measure to Environmental Impact
a. Directly Related to Product:YES CHOPSTICK
b. Indirectly Related to Product:NO
c. Not Related to Product:NO
d. Related to Process:YES DEFORestation
15. Trade Product Identification:CHOPSTICK and PAPER
16. Economic DataThe Mitsubishi corporation is the main source of deforestation in Northwest Canada, with its logging operations comprising 32% of its total corporation's worth. The Mitsubishi's profits are in excess of U.S.$175 billion, which are greater than many small developing countries' GDP. The ALPAC mills that are located in Alberta and BC are actually owned by the Mitsubishi Corporation, and the mills are currently paying the province U.S.$1.1 billion in forest management agreements to harvest the Aspen, Douglas Fir, Larch and Red Cedar in Albertažs forests. Once the wood is harvested and then processed, its value balloons from U.S.$1.1 billion to approximately U.S.$8.2 billion, and it is estimated that Northwest Canada is losing nearly U.S.$80 million in forest productivity every year because of its poorly negotiated FMA's. Much of the wood that is harvested in Northwest Canada is shipped to Japan by the Mitsubishi Corporation, where the wood is then processed into disposable paper products and approximately 8 million disposable chopsticks per day.
17. Impact of Trade Restriction:LOW
18. Industry Sector:WOOD
19. Exporters and Importers:CANADA and JAPAN
V. Environment Clusters
20. Environmental Problem Type:[DEFOR] The habitat of the Northwest Canadian forest is one of great diversity. The forests are filled with many species of trees that include the Red Cedar, Douglas Fir, Aspen and Larch trees. The trees are utilized by Grizzly Bear, Elk and Deer as rubbing trees in order to mark their territory and rub their winter coats from their skins in the spring. The trees are also utilized by such birds as the Red Naped Sapsucker, Pileated Woodpecker and various Eagles and Owls to build their nests and raise their young. Other aspects of the Northwest Canadian forest include its rivers and streams, and examples include the Great Mackenzie River, the James River and the Athabaska River. At one time the rivers contained large populations of salmon and bull trout, but the populations have dwindled as the rivers have become increasingly polluted with higher sediment yields, and increased organo-chloride chemicals.
21. Name, Type, and Diversity of Species
22. Resource Impact and Effect:LOW and Structural[STRUCT] The Canadian Government has stipulated that the keiretsu multinational corporations must replant once they have finished their clearcutting. The replanting is often completed with trees of a single species that have a relatively short growth period (between 60 and 80 years). That type of replanting damages the diversity of the temperate "old growth" rainforest, as the trees that take 200 to 400 years to mature become wiped out permanently.
23. Urgency and Lifetime:HIGH and 200-400 years
VI. Other Factors
25. Culture:YES Much of the land in British Columbia and Alberta at one time belonged to the Cree, Lubicon, Dene Tha, Haidu, and Algonquin Indians, and was utilized by the indigenous populations to hunt elk, and to fish salmon on a subsistence basis. As clearcutting by the Mitsubishi and Daishowa corporations becomes more prevalent, the habitats are slowly becoming destroyed and hurting the Native American's means of traditional survival.
26. Trans-Boundary Issues:YES The boreal temperate old growth forest ranges throughout Northwestern Canada, crossing the boarders of Alberta and BC., and the forest management agreements that the two provinces have signed are negotiated between the multinational logging corporations and the two individual provinces. While the agreements are being negotiated, it must be remembered that the old growth forest is shared by all Canadians, and the forest management agreements should be negotiated with all of Canada's interests in mind, rather than only with one singular provincežs interests in mind.
27. Rights:YES Many questions arise as to whether the human rights of the various indigenous populations are being violated while the clearcutting becomes more prevalent. Has the government of Canada simply ignored the Native American's problems, and sold their habitat and culture to the power and money of the Japanese multinational corporations? Many ecologists and biologists feel that the Alberta and B.C. Governments have violated the human rights of the indigenous populations. Native Americans are slowly losing their means of survival (the boreal temperate forest) because of the clearcutting practices of the timber MNCs, and also because of the chemicals that have been emitted into the Northwest Canadian forest from the pulp and paper mills. The Native Americans do not have a very strong voice in Alberta and B.C., and subsequently, have been consistently ignored by their governments. But there is some hope for the Native Americans in the form of NGOs and IOs that have been, and will remain active in helping the various Indian populations to have a voice in Canada and to protect their land.
28. Relevant LiteratureBrazil of the North. "The National and Global Crisis in Canada' Forests" January 1993, 1.
Brazil of the North. "Caribou Written Off?" January 1993, 12.
Brazil of the North. "Another Meta-Pulp Mill May Mean Collapse in Alberta's Boreal Forest",January 1993, 11.
Butler, Dr. Jim. "Ecological and Tourism Implications of Pulp Mills in Northern Alberta", January, 1993, Brazil of the North, January 1993, 12.
Champagne, Anne. "Lubicon Struggle" Brazil of the North, January 1993," 10.
Devall, Bill, ed. 1993. Clearcut; The Tragedy of Industrial Forestry. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books and Earth Island Press.
Greenpeace: "Destructive Forest Practices In Canada: The British Columbia Case," March 1994.
Greenpeace: "Eco Geneva," 16 February, 1994.
Greenpeace: "Environmental Groups Call On Mitsubishi To Immediately Halt Logging in Sarawak, Malaysia," 23 October, 1991.
Greenpeace: "International Boreal Forest Conference Denounces Clearcutting," 8 September, 1994.
Greenpeace: "Notes On The Environmental Impact Of Japan" , 4 November 1992.
Greenpeace: "Pulp Mill Pollution In B.C. And Alberta - The Facts," 1991.)
Greenpeace: "Submission To The ALPAC Scientific Review Panel Regarding The ALPAC Mill Proposal."
Greenpeace: "Swedes Tackle Biodiversity Crisis While Canada Rushes To Copy Their Failures," February 1992.
Greenpeace: "The Greenpeace Book Of Greenwash," 15 May, 1992.
Karliner, Joshua. "God's Little Chopsticks." Mother Jones, September 1994, 16.
Mason, Todd. "How Do You Say Tim-Ber in Japanese?" Business Week, 4 December 1989, 52.
McCrory, William and Erica Mallam. "Study Shows New Denver Flats Logging Will Seriously Damage Rich Old-Growth and Wetland Ecosystem" Our Forests, Our Homes.
Mishima, Yasuo. The Mitsubishi: Its Challenge and Strategy. Greenwich: JAI Press, 1989
Neff, Robert. "Mighty Mitsubishi is on The Move: Its Hundreds of Interdependent Companies are Binding an Empire that stretches from Rockefeller Center to Riyadh." Business Week, 24 September 1990, 98-101.
New York Times. (Late New York Times Edition.) "Environmental Group Aims At Mitsubishi," 4, December 1989, D6.
Our Forests, Our Homes. "Slocan Valley residents tell why they need healthy forests, and what can be done to protect their interest," 1.
Parker, David J. "Canada's Fragile Arctic and Northern Rivers Threatened by Pulp Mill Developments," Brazil of the North. January 1993, 13.
Piche, Camille. "Dene Tha: Stop the Pulp Mills in Alberta", Brazil of the North, January 1993, 10.
Swift, Jamie. "Canadian Forests Under Siege." Multinational Monitor, 15 October 1985, 3-5.
The Networker. "Slocan Residents Outraged at Clearcuts," 1 November 1996, 10.
www.bright.net/~petersen/orang1.html; Grungy Link Page
www.envirolink:org/orgs/; Envirolink Library
www.greenpeace.org/iinf.html; Greenpeace: Vancouver
www.intranet.ca/~foe/forestry.html; Friends of The Earth
www.nrdc.org/nrdc/; National Resource Defense Council
www.pacificrim.net/~nwea; Northwest Environmental Watch
www.sierraclub.ca/prairie/; Sierra Club du Canada
www.wcmc.org.uk/; World Conservation Monitoring Centre
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