TED Case Studies

Mitsubishi and Daishowa's Involvement in Canadian Deforestation




I. Identification


1. The Issue

Two Japanese multinational corporations are involved in the degradation of the Northwestern Canadian forest. The two corporations are the Mitsubishi and Daishowa Keiretsu, that are involved in the harvesting of the old growth, boreal forest in both Alberta and BC. The harvesting is mainly done through clearcutting methods that are environmentally damaging because they speed up erosion, pollute fisheries and streams, destroy travel corridors for the animals which inhabit the forest, and damage the indigenous population's culture and lifestyle. The harvesting of the boreal forest by the corporations is mainly for the prized aspen tree, utilized for building materials in Japan, disposable paper products and disposable chopsticks which are also known as waribashi in Japan. If better forest management agreements cannot be found in the near future to protect the boreal temperate rainforest, it will become extinct with no hope of recovery for the future.

2. Description

MNCs and Clearcutting: 
     There is an ongoing problem involving the clearcut
deforestation of much of the forests of the provinces of British
Columbia and Alberta Canada.  Large Japanese multinational logging
corporations continually sign forest management agreements with the
British Columbia and the Alberta Governments, that allow for a
large part of the boreal temperate rainforest located in the two
provinces to be harvested.  As the forest is harvested for
disposable chopsticks and pulp and paper products, Canada is losing
a vital resource. Adding to Canada's forestry problems is that the
logging has caused severe environmental problems such as rapid
erosion, water pollution and displacement of indigenous

     The Japanese MNCs have recently turned to Canada to obtain the
wood they desperately need, because they have already destroyed
much of Japanžs natural forest, and most of the indigenous wood
that remains in the country is protected by the Japanese
Government.  With the lack of its own wood, one would think that
the Japanese people would hold the resource as a precious entity,
but this is quite the contrary.  Much of the wood that is taken
from Canada is utilized for plywood as concrete forms, and for
disposable chopsticks that can be found in Tokyo restaurants.  The
waste of Canadian wood is compounded by multibillion dollar land
giveaways to the Mitsubishi and Daishowa Corporations by the
Alberta and B.C. Governments.  The giveaways have totaled 100,000
sq. miles, or ten percent of Alberta's total land mass, and if one
were to compare that total it would be larger then the land areas
of Connecticut, Rhode Island, Delaware, Massachusetts, Prince
Edward Island and Nova Scotia combined.  

     The current land giveaways that total an estimated U.S.$1.1
billion are very important to Alberta, since it is currently
increasing taxes across the board to pay for a budget deficit. But
many of the indigenous Albertans are upset that once the lumber is
processed by the Japanese MNCs into plywood, chopsticks and paper,
its worth will balloon to U.S.$8.2 billion.  The large amount of
profit has concerned the Albertan citizens, and has caused them to
take notice of the exact damage being inflicted upon their land by
the Japanese MNCs, and if the estimated U.S.$1.1 billion is
actually a sufficient price to pay for environmental degradation. 
     The Canadian government has historically undervalued its
timber, often allowing foreign logging corporations to generate
profits much higher than would be possible anywhere else in the
world.  That was due to Canada's fear that the loss of its logging
dominance would damage its U.S.$23 billion per year industry,
leading to more than one million Canadian loggers losing their
livelihoods.  As the fears surmounted, the governments of Alberta
and British Columbia have virtually given away the rights to over
221,000 sq kilometers of boreal forest, and have embarked on FMA's
(i.e.; forest management agreements), that provide immense benefits
to MNCs for their clearcutting practices, thus severely damaging
the provincežs boreal forest.

     While the clearcutting continues, 80% of what has been logged
in Alberta has occurred in the last 25 years causing massive
erosion, U.S.$80 million in lost forest productivity per year,
damage to salmon fisheries and streams, and the destruction of
sacred native sites.  It is estimated that each year, 3.8 million
hectares of Canadian forest is not regulated satisfactorily, and
this must be changed if Canada's boreal forests are to be saved,
because the forest is worth more to the planet as a biodiverse
ecosystem, than as pulp and paper or disposable chopsticks.  

     Mitsubishi's effort of clearcutting large tracts of forest
have not slowed, and even though the Japanese MNC claims it only
contributes to .04% of the global timber industry, it is actually
harvesting much more timber than that.  In fact, Mitsubishi is one
of the oldest corporations involved in the logging of both the
southern rainforests of South America and Eastern Asia, and the
northern temperate forests of Canada and Siberia, and it remains a
primary creator of dirty, dangerous, and unsustainable technologies

     Why is Clearcutting Occurring?: 
     The destruction of one hundred year old Aspen trees in Alberta
and B.C. is increasing, and the products that are produced from the
timber by Mitsubishi do not seem to warrant the type of
environmental destruction that is occurring.  Much of the Canadian
lumber is utilized to produce disposable eating utensils (e.g.;
chopsticks) known in Japan as waribashi, plywood forms for concrete
at construction sites, and cardboard for oversized compact disc
packaging for the music industry.  The waribashi are produced for 
Japanese sushi bars, noodle shops, and fast food restaurants that
have become quite common in Japan, but Japan is not the only user
of disposable chopsticks, and they can be found in restaurants in
the U.S., France and Italy.   Mitsubishi and Daishowa's world
disposable chopstick production stands at approximately 20 billion
pair per year, and the high production is due to the fact that many
Japanese people do not wish to use a chopstick that has been
utilized by another individual, because they believe that the
chopstick was given to them by the gods, and are therefore sacred
and held in high regard.  

     The Mitsubishi and Daishowa corporations have made tremendous
profits on the disposable utensil market, and the RAN (i.e.;
Rainforest Action Network) has stated that Mitsubishi has currently
captured one third of the market.  To keep pace with the high
demand of the disposable chopstick market, Mitsubishi produces 8
million chopsticks per day, which translates into a large amount of
Aspens that are cut to provide the wood for the chopsticks.

     In addition to disposable chopsticks, Mitsubishi is utilizing
the Canadian boreal forest to produce pulp and paper products, and
wood for the construction of houses and plywood forms for concrete
molds.  The Aspen tree, which is found in the Canadian forest is
highly prized for its pulp, which has lead to the tree's quick
disappearance.  The high speed logging of the Aspens is due to the
fact that they tend to rot quickly, and if rotting occurs, it will
reduce the strength and brightness of the pulp, producing
substandard paper products.     

     Another factor in the harvesting of the Canadian forest, is
that the Aspen must be unblemished because chopstick manufacturers,
and Japanese builders demand unblemished wood without knots or
scars.  If  the wood were to have a knot or a scar it would not be
utilized and thrown away.  The wasteful practice by the Japanese
MNCs of throwing away scarred wood, is a concern for many
ecologists who believe that Japanese MNC wood consumption patterns
should change.  But, Japan cannot bear the entire blame for poor
consumption patterns of timber, because the entire industrialized
world is somewhat to blame for many wasteful consumption patterns
that should be altered if the forests are to survive.  
      Where is the clearcutting most prevalent? 
     The most prevalent clearcutting by Mitsubishi and Daishowa is
located in the Western Alberta and Eastern B.C. provinces in the
Canadian Rockies.  In the Canadian Rocky Mountains, there is the
Wood Buffalo National Park along the Peace River, where there are
fifty foot tall strands of Aspen trees that are coveted by logging
companies for their fine grain and pulp quality.  When traveling
the Peace River, one would have no idea of the type of degradation
occurring approximately 10 to 15 miles beyond the "beauty strip,"
along the Peace River.  Once one travels beyond the so called
beauty strip, they can find the evidence of massive clearcuts that
result in the beginning of hazardous erosion within the landscape
of the Canadian Rocky Mountains.  

     Another area of concern within Alberta is the James River,
where U.S.$5 billion in pulp and paper plants have been proposed,
that would make them some of the largest in the world.  The plants
would be built by Mitsubishi and Daishowa to harvest the timber in
the James River region that the two MNCs hold a 20 year lease
comprising of 221,000 sq km, or roughly 15% of Alberta's total land
mass, equivalent to the size of the U.K.'s land mass.  If the MNCs
follow through with their proposed plants, the Canadian Science
Council predicts that "one eighth of Canada's productive forest
will deteriorate to the point where huge tracts lie devastated,
unable to regenerate a merchantable crop within the next sixty to
eighty years," and every year after some 200,000 to 400,000 ha will
be added to the total amount of devastated land.

     The devastation of clearcutting has not been limited to the
James or the Peace Rivers exclusively.  Other regions that have
been effected by clearcutting are the Slocum Valley, New Denver,
Silverton Village and Clayoqout Sound.  Many of the regions have
experienced biodiversity problems due to improper timber
extraction, especially in terms of their watersheds, because much
of the earthžs natural sponge, the forest, is gone.  Without the
trees to absorb the rainwater, the runoff levels to the streams and
rivers will increase, and many of the logging roads that parallel
the streams and rivers will erode.  The resulting sedimentary
runoff will make its way into the valley's watersheds, chocking and
polluting them to the point where much of the fish will die.  

     The death of Canada's rivers and streams is a concern for many
Canadian politicians and businessmen, because the burgeoning
industry of eco-tourism may face hazardous consequences.  The eco-
tourism industry in Alberta and B.C. currently employs at least
100,000 people, or about 9% of the workforce, and is the third
largest industry in the two provinces behind oil and gas, and in
the next few years, it will become the leading industry in
Northwest Canada.
     Environmental Concerns from Clearcutting:
     Many of the implications related to clearcutting in Alberta
and B.C. have both an environmental  and economic impact.  The
economic impact involves the depletion of unsustainable resources
and the loss of eco-tourism.  The environmental impact includes the
destruction of Salmon and Bull Trout fisheries, the spreading of
erosion to newly logged mountainsides, and the loss of gateways for
movement for the Grizzly Bear, Caribou and Elk.  

     The loss of animal travel gateways in Alberta and B.C. poses
a threat to the various species of the Northwest Canadian forest
because the caribou, deer and elk have found themselves in new
states of vulnerability, because they cannot find protection from
inclimate weather or natural predators.  Also, the grizzly bear has
suffered from the loss of travel corridors, because the bears are
very large animals which must range over a broad area in order to
find food, and mix with different genetic stock for breeding.
     The clearcuts are not the only source of environmental
degradation that are destroying the B.C. and Alberta forests. 
Other damage is being caused by the erection of massive pulp mills
that are dumping thousands of tons of toxic waste into Canadažs
northern rivers daily.  An example of the pollution is on the Great
Mackenzie River, that has turned into a chemical sewer of pulp mill
discharge.  That is because the pulp and paper industry is one of
Canadažs worst polluters of the environment, due to its drive to
turn trees into paper and, it has developed a dangerous chemical
dependency for organo-chlorine, used to bleach the wood to prepare
it for paper production.  In both Alberta and B.C., the pulp
industry has been spewing approximately 150,000 tons of organo-
chlorine chemicals into the rivers and coastal waters because of
the chlorine bleaching processes, and even though MNCs like
Mitsubishi claim to have been reducing their organo-chlorine
production, they have conversely doubled production, causing even
greater environmental hazards.  

     The environmental hazards in Northwest Canada from the pulp
processing and clearcuts by the timber MNCs have manifested without
any clear and successful programs to regenerate the old growth
forest for future generations.  The Canadian Government has engaged
in programs of forest regeneration that include various tree
plantations, but often the inappropriate plantation of a singular
species of saplings cannot successfully recreate the intricate
diversity,found in the Canadian forest, and the plantations often
fail.  Another reason for regrowth failure is that the
inappropriate replanting is caused by the logging industry's desire
for quicker harvest rotation cycles of the various trees in
Northwest Canada.  Many environmentalists believe that the old
growth forest needs approximately 200 years to mature before it can
be harvested, but the timber MNCs are trying to create a cycle of
between 60 and 120 years to increase their yields and raise their

     The inappropriate replanting efforts and the shortened harvest
cycles have become an unnatural disturbance, in which the forest
cannot absorb its environmental consequences.  With the allowing of
heightened harvest activity and inappropriate replanting, 
Northwest Canada has earned itself the nickname "the Brazil of the
North."  That is because both Canada and Brazil have similar
overall land masses, witnessed similar amounts of hectares
destroyed by forestry, and have similar amounts of indigenous
populations that reside in their forests (see table 1).  Therefore,
without some sort of program of managed forestry, deforestation and
environmental degradation can become a severe problem for any
country, whether that country is considered developed like Canada
or developing like Brazil.   

Table 1: Canadian and Brazilian Deforestation Comparison

Size of Canada:                    9.9 million square kilometers
Size of Brazil:                       8.5 million square kilometers

Percent of Canada covered by forest:    45%
Percent of Brazil covered by Amazon rainforest:     41%

Hectares of forest cleared in Canada in 1988
(latest figures available; 1990 will be similar or higher):
Hectares of Brazilian Amazon cleared or burned in 1990:    

Amount of productive Canadian forest that is now either
barren or žnot sufficiently restockedž after clearcutting:     
Amount of Brazilian rainforest that has disappeared:           12%

Estimated number of Indians and Metis in Canadažs boreal forest:  
Estimated number of Indians in the Amazonian forest:              

Amount of forest officially protected in Canada:                  
In Brazil:                                                        

Source: Brazil of The North and Equinox Magazine, Forestry
Statistics Canada, 
       1992 State of the World Report. 

     Indigenous Populations effected:

     Clearcutting techniques within the timber industry not only do
great damage to the biodiversity of the Northwest Canadian forest,
but also damage the well being of the indigenous populations of the
region.  The indigenous peoples that have become effected include
the Dene Tha, Lubicon Lake Nation, Bigstone Cree, Algonquin, Haidu
and Nuu-Chah-Nulth, all of whom utilize the streams of the forest
for fishing salmon and trout, and the land in the forests for
hunting animals and obtaining berries and herbs to sustain their
culturežs survival.  

     In addition to food resources that have become damaged by the
timber industry, examples of indigenous displacement have also
occurred to the Lubicon Indian Nation.  In 1988, the Lubicon Nation
was told by the Alberta Government "that the largest pulp mill in
Canada would be built on 105 kilometers of land, west of the
Lubicon community of Little Buffalo Lake."  The proposed mill would
have the capacity to process 11,000 trees per day, and more than 4
million trees per year.  The trees were to have been taken from a
timber lease that the Alberta Government granted to Daishowa, that
blanketed the 4,000 square mile Lubicon territory.  The Lubicon
people are also some of the poorest in Canada, and many live in
third world conditions, but the conditions have not stopped the
Alberta Government in their efforts to give away Lubicon land to
Daishowa in the form of subsidies for timber extraction in excess
of U.S.$74.7 million.  The land give away is allowed to occur
because the Lubicon are a small, poor population whose voice has
been dampened by the Alberta Government and Daishowa.

     In the past year, there have been ongoing national protests to
try and save the Lubicon land, and in 1996 "there was a major
international campaign to block Daishowa's clearcutting of Lubicon
land until land claims are settled and a cutting agreement is
reached to respect wildlife and environmental concerns."

     In addition to the Lubicon, a second group of indigenous
peoples are also threatened by the Mitsubishi and Daishowa
clearcutting, and they are the Bigstone Cree Indians, which are the
largest band of Indians in Northern Alberta.  The Cree Indians have
recently become concerned with the possibility of pollution from
one of Mitsubishižs pulp mills discharging pollutants into the
Athabaska River.  The Cree are dependent upon the Athabaska
watershed for the fishing of salmon, trout and the trapping of
game, and Mitsubishi's mill is in the process of destroying the
river that will eventually damage or destroy the Cree food sources
and culture.  

     The Bigstone Cree Indians believe that they have only one
method of salvaging their main source of food (i.e.; the Athabaska
River) and that is to take Mitsubishi to court in Alberta on water
rights claims.  That strategy could be the best one for the Cree,
if  they can prove they depend upon the Athabaska watershed as a
means of survival, but if they cannot, then the indigenous
population's culture might face the possibility of continued pulp
mill pollution and an extinction of the Athabaska watershed, which
would mean the extinction of the Cree people as well.   

     Regardless of whether the Lubicon Nation or the Bigstone Cree
Indians can succeed in stopping the operation of the two mills of 
Mitsubishi or Daishowa, the production techniques of the mills
should be slowed and reformed.  Many residents of Canada believe
that the long term survival of the Northwestern forest outweighs
any economic gains that Northwestern Canada will have by allowing
unsustainable forestry to manifest.  The Canadians feel  their
future is tied to the health of the environment, and the
clearcutting and pulp production have caused the Canadian forests
to suffer and become ill, and a cure to the suffering and illness
should be found to assure that in the future, all Canadians can
rely on the forest for clean water and healthy food sources.   

     Possible Solutions for Northwest Canada:

     A final method that can be utilized to protect the Canadian
forest is for the citizens of Canada, and the world, to realize and
understand the various facets of corporate propaganda, or
žGreenwashž techniques MNCs use to make themselves appear
environmentally friendly.  The techniques include the appearance of
an MNC becoming newly committed to environmentalism, in the forms
of proposed new waste management techniques, and product
manufacturing efficiencies.  By utilizing the greenwash propaganda,
the MNC attempts to make itself appear to be the new protectors of
the environment, rather than the polluters of the planet.  One
should not always be persuaded by the 180 degree turn of events for
the MNCs, because the damage they have already inflicted upon the
planet has been so severe, and in many cases irreversible.  

3. Related Cases


4. Draft Author:

Jason R. Miller 2/20/97

II. Legal Clusters

5. Discourse and Status:

DISagreement and INPROGress

6. Forum and Scope:

CANADA and BILATERAL Many preservation organizations are involved in an effort to save the Northwest Canadian temperate rainforest such as the Valhalla Society and Greenpeace.

7. Decision Breadth:

2 (Canada and Japan) Japanese multinational corporations (Keiretsu) like the Mitsubishi and Daishowa corporations continually sign forest management agreements with the Alberta and British Columbia Governments to harvest the temperate old growth rainforests through massive clearcutting techniques. That form of environmental degradation has been allowed to run rampant through the Northwest Canadian forests, causing excessive erosion due to the building of thousands of miles of dirt logging roads. Therefore, when rain and snow runoff occur, there is an excess amount of water flowing to the rivers and streams, and that will cause an increase in sediment buildup in the rivers and streams. As a result, many endangered salmon and bull trout fisheries are running the risk of being destroyed because of the clearcutting, while much of the harvested wood is utilized for disposable chopsticks (waribashi), and pulp and disposable paper products.

8. Legal Standing:

SUBLAW The laws enacted by the Alberta and B.C. Governments allow the corporations to log areas of Alberta and British Columbia in a managed effort for between 20 and 90 years (forest management agreements.) The forest management agreements allow the logging MNCs to have virtually total control over the land that the agreements are signed for. The discretion that the agreements give to the MNCs allows the MNCs to harvest the Northwest Canadian forests through the methods of clearcutting, and the only limits which the agreements place upon the MNCs are for how many hectares can be harvested, and how many trees per hectare can be harvested.

III. Geographic Clusters

9. Geographic Locations

a. Geographic Domain: NORTH AMERICA


c. Geographic Impact: CANADA

10. Sub-National Factors:


11. Type of Habitat:


IV. Trade Clusters

12. Type of Measure:


13. Direct v. Indirect Impacts:


14. Relation of Trade Measure to Environmental Impact

a. Directly Related to Product:YES CHOPSTICK

b. Indirectly Related to Product:NO

c. Not Related to Product:NO

d. Related to Process:YES DEFORestation

15. Trade Product Identification:


16. Economic Data

The Mitsubishi corporation is the main source of deforestation in Northwest Canada, with its logging operations comprising 32% of its total corporation's worth. The Mitsubishi's profits are in excess of U.S.$175 billion, which are greater than many small developing countries' GDP. The ALPAC mills that are located in Alberta and BC are actually owned by the Mitsubishi Corporation, and the mills are currently paying the province U.S.$1.1 billion in forest management agreements to harvest the Aspen, Douglas Fir, Larch and Red Cedar in Albertažs forests. Once the wood is harvested and then processed, its value balloons from U.S.$1.1 billion to approximately U.S.$8.2 billion, and it is estimated that Northwest Canada is losing nearly U.S.$80 million in forest productivity every year because of its poorly negotiated FMA's. Much of the wood that is harvested in Northwest Canada is shipped to Japan by the Mitsubishi Corporation, where the wood is then processed into disposable paper products and approximately 8 million disposable chopsticks per day.

17. Impact of Trade Restriction:


18. Industry Sector:


19. Exporters and Importers:


V. Environment Clusters

20. Environmental Problem Type:

[DEFOR] The habitat of the Northwest Canadian forest is one of great diversity. The forests are filled with many species of trees that include the Red Cedar, Douglas Fir, Aspen and Larch trees. The trees are utilized by Grizzly Bear, Elk and Deer as rubbing trees in order to mark their territory and rub their winter coats from their skins in the spring. The trees are also utilized by such birds as the Red Naped Sapsucker, Pileated Woodpecker and various Eagles and Owls to build their nests and raise their young. Other aspects of the Northwest Canadian forest include its rivers and streams, and examples include the Great Mackenzie River, the James River and the Athabaska River. At one time the rivers contained large populations of salmon and bull trout, but the populations have dwindled as the rivers have become increasingly polluted with higher sediment yields, and increased organo-chloride chemicals.

21. Name, Type, and Diversity of Species

22. Resource Impact and Effect:

LOW and Structural[STRUCT] The Canadian Government has stipulated that the keiretsu multinational corporations must replant once they have finished their clearcutting. The replanting is often completed with trees of a single species that have a relatively short growth period (between 60 and 80 years). That type of replanting damages the diversity of the temperate "old growth" rainforest, as the trees that take 200 to 400 years to mature become wiped out permanently.

23. Urgency and Lifetime:

HIGH and 200-400 years

24. Substitutes:


VI. Other Factors

25. Culture:

YES Much of the land in British Columbia and Alberta at one time belonged to the Cree, Lubicon, Dene Tha, Haidu, and Algonquin Indians, and was utilized by the indigenous populations to hunt elk, and to fish salmon on a subsistence basis. As clearcutting by the Mitsubishi and Daishowa corporations becomes more prevalent, the habitats are slowly becoming destroyed and hurting the Native American's means of traditional survival.

26. Trans-Boundary Issues:

YES The boreal temperate old growth forest ranges throughout Northwestern Canada, crossing the boarders of Alberta and BC., and the forest management agreements that the two provinces have signed are negotiated between the multinational logging corporations and the two individual provinces. While the agreements are being negotiated, it must be remembered that the old growth forest is shared by all Canadians, and the forest management agreements should be negotiated with all of Canada's interests in mind, rather than only with one singular provincežs interests in mind.

27. Rights:

YES Many questions arise as to whether the human rights of the various indigenous populations are being violated while the clearcutting becomes more prevalent. Has the government of Canada simply ignored the Native American's problems, and sold their habitat and culture to the power and money of the Japanese multinational corporations? Many ecologists and biologists feel that the Alberta and B.C. Governments have violated the human rights of the indigenous populations. Native Americans are slowly losing their means of survival (the boreal temperate forest) because of the clearcutting practices of the timber MNCs, and also because of the chemicals that have been emitted into the Northwest Canadian forest from the pulp and paper mills. The Native Americans do not have a very strong voice in Alberta and B.C., and subsequently, have been consistently ignored by their governments. But there is some hope for the Native Americans in the form of NGOs and IOs that have been, and will remain active in helping the various Indian populations to have a voice in Canada and to protect their land.

28. Relevant Literature

Brazil of the North. "The National and Global Crisis in Canada' Forests" January 1993, 1.

Brazil of the North. "Caribou Written Off?" January 1993, 12.

Brazil of the North. "Another Meta-Pulp Mill May Mean Collapse in Alberta's Boreal Forest",January 1993, 11.

Butler, Dr. Jim. "Ecological and Tourism Implications of Pulp Mills in Northern Alberta", January, 1993, Brazil of the North, January 1993, 12.

Champagne, Anne. "Lubicon Struggle" Brazil of the North, January 1993," 10.

Devall, Bill, ed. 1993. Clearcut; The Tragedy of Industrial Forestry. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books and Earth Island Press.

Greenpeace: "Destructive Forest Practices In Canada: The British Columbia Case," March 1994.

Greenpeace: "Eco Geneva," 16 February, 1994.

Greenpeace: "Environmental Groups Call On Mitsubishi To Immediately Halt Logging in Sarawak, Malaysia," 23 October, 1991.

Greenpeace: "International Boreal Forest Conference Denounces Clearcutting," 8 September, 1994.

Greenpeace: "Notes On The Environmental Impact Of Japan" , 4 November 1992.

Greenpeace: "Pulp Mill Pollution In B.C. And Alberta - The Facts," 1991.)

Greenpeace: "Submission To The ALPAC Scientific Review Panel Regarding The ALPAC Mill Proposal."

Greenpeace: "Swedes Tackle Biodiversity Crisis While Canada Rushes To Copy Their Failures," February 1992.

Greenpeace: "The Greenpeace Book Of Greenwash," 15 May, 1992.

Karliner, Joshua. "God's Little Chopsticks." Mother Jones, September 1994, 16.

Mason, Todd. "How Do You Say Tim-Ber in Japanese?" Business Week, 4 December 1989, 52.

McCrory, William and Erica Mallam. "Study Shows New Denver Flats Logging Will Seriously Damage Rich Old-Growth and Wetland Ecosystem" Our Forests, Our Homes.

Mishima, Yasuo. The Mitsubishi: Its Challenge and Strategy. Greenwich: JAI Press, 1989

Neff, Robert. "Mighty Mitsubishi is on The Move: Its Hundreds of Interdependent Companies are Binding an Empire that stretches from Rockefeller Center to Riyadh." Business Week, 24 September 1990, 98-101.

New York Times. (Late New York Times Edition.) "Environmental Group Aims At Mitsubishi," 4, December 1989, D6.

Our Forests, Our Homes. "Slocan Valley residents tell why they need healthy forests, and what can be done to protect their interest," 1.

Parker, David J. "Canada's Fragile Arctic and Northern Rivers Threatened by Pulp Mill Developments," Brazil of the North. January 1993, 13.

Piche, Camille. "Dene Tha: Stop the Pulp Mills in Alberta", Brazil of the North, January 1993, 10.

Swift, Jamie. "Canadian Forests Under Siege." Multinational Monitor, 15 October 1985, 3-5.

The Networker. "Slocan Residents Outraged at Clearcuts," 1 November 1996, 10.

www.bright.net/~petersen/orang1.html; Grungy Link Page

www.envirolink:org/orgs/; Envirolink Library

www.greenpeace.org/iinf.html; Greenpeace: Vancouver

www.intranet.ca/~foe/forestry.html; Friends of The Earth

www.nrdc.org/nrdc/; National Resource Defense Council

www.pacificrim.net/~nwea; Northwest Environmental Watch

www.sierraclub.ca/prairie/; Sierra Club du Canada

www.wcmc.org.uk/; World Conservation Monitoring Centre

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May, 1997