TED Case Studies: Tin Mining In Malaysia - Present And Future

Tin Mining In Malaysia



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I. Identification

1. The Issue

The tin mining industry was once a major contributor to the Malaysian economy. Indeed, Kuala Lumpur has its origin in tin mining. In 1979, malaysia was producing almost 63,000 tonnes, accounting for 31 percent of world output. It was the world's leading producer and employed more than 41,000 people. By 1994, the country's production had fallen to 6,500 tonnes, with only 3,000 people employed in the industry. Whilst, Malaysia's production fell by 90 percent over the last 15 years, global output fell by only 20 percent. Today, the country hardly exports tin as production is used mostly for the domestic electronic and tinplating industries. The collapse of the tin industry is due to exhaustion of tin deposits, the low tin prices and the high operating costs. But perhaps too much was done to protect it rather than to obselete the industry.

2. Description

A) History Of Tin Mining In Malaysia
Tin mining is one of the oldest industries in Malaya. The tin mining started since 1820s in Malaysia after the arrival of Chinese immigrants. The Chinese immigrants settled in Perak and started tin mines. Their leader was the famous Chung Ah Qwee.Their arrival contributed to the needed labour and hence the growth of the tin mining industry. By 1872, there were about 40,000 miners in Malaysia, mostly Cantonese and Hakka. In Selangor, tin mining started in 1824. There were about 10,000 Chinese in the state. The majority of them were Hakka. Kuala Lumpur, like Selangor was similarly developed by the hardworking miners.

Tin was the major pillars of the Malaysian economy. Tin occurs chiefly as alluvial deposits in the foothills of the Peninsular on the western side. The most important area is the Kinta Valley, which includes the towns of Ipoh, Gopeng, Kampar and Batu Gajah in the State of Perak. In fact, alluvial tin is mined in a belt of country stretching from Kedah into the Kinta Valley and along the foothills of Perak, Selangor and Johore. This part of the tin belt and includes the capital of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, which is the centre of another rich tin-mining area.

The expansion of tin mining began in the 1870s, with the commencement of pit-working of tin laden sands in valleys all the way down the West Coast region of the Peninsular. In the Western Peninsular, chaotic political conditions involving war arose between organized Chinese miners, Malay sultans, minor rulers and villagers. This chaos was the formal precipitating cause of the British "forward movement" in the Peninsular, which culminated in the establishment of colonial control over the main tin mining Malay states in 1874. Stable political conditions then enabled a few large Chinese entrepreneurs to establish themselves much more securely, recruited labor more readily and imported pumping machinery to facilitate what was still essentially a manual industry, digging holes and extracting the ore by hand.

Growing industrial demand for tin, coupled with the discovery of large and rich tin deposits in Larut and Kinta in the state of Perak in the early 19th century led to the disputes among the Malay rulers, large scale immigration of Chinese labour which in turn gave rise to Chinese investment, British intervention and domination and finally, injection of foreign, mainly British capital and technology into the Peninsular.

The British later directed Sir Andrew Clarke to develop a communication system, hence state roads were constructed between the principal mining towns. The big step into a modern system of communication was taken in 1885 when a 12.8km stretch of railway line was laid from Taiping, which was the distribution centre for the Larut tin fields, and its port - Port Weld. The first trunk road in Peninsular Malaysia was routed through the main tin mining towns of Seremban, Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Taiping. Thus it can be seen that the pioneering work of developing Malaysia was carried out through tin mining. The main purpose of building the communication system was the transfer tin and other resources gathered from the states to ports, which will later be shipped back to the United Kingdom.

Tin which is the entrepot trade of the colony have been the source of the prosperity of its upper classes and the home investors and these ownership is shared primarily between the British and the Chinese with the former holding the major share. Towards the end of the last century the British began breaking in on the monopoly of tin by the Chinese and the trend has been increasingly toward British control. Before the war, the British controlled only a quarter of the tin, but with the introduction of the colossal dredging machine after the war British production began to mount sharply until in 1929 which is more than half of the total. By 1931 it has risen to 65% of the total. The hand-worked open-cast in Chinese mines are unable to compete with the British dredges. Under the spur of competition the Chinese have made considerable advance in merchandising their mines, but ther are lack of capital for the installation of dredges. From 1928 to 1933, the labor force engaged in tin mining was cut from 119,550 to 51,980. This decline is due to the introduction of dredges. However, the labor force rose again to 64,183 in 1934.

By 1883, Malaysia had become the largest tin producer in the world. By the end of the 19th century, it was supplying about 55% of the world's tin compared with the 1992 about 30%.

B) Uses Of Tin
Tin is an important commodity in international trade, but it does not naturally as a metal. Tin is used in hundreds of industrial processes throughout the world. Tin is widely used in many industries such as in food packaging,culinary equipment, electronics, tin chemicals, plumbing solders, engineering alloys, pewter and bronze in music and the arts, dental amalgams, anti-corrosion and engineering coatings, wine capsules and fire retardants.

Food packaging and culinary equipment
Tin plate is the primary material for food canning and shares the beverage can market with alluminium. It is also commonly used in bakeware and food storage containers such as biscuit tins, tea caddies etc. Until the advent of stainless steel, much food preparation machinery was tin plated to prevent corrosion and adulteration from the base metals and even today items such as copper pans and hand mincers are still heavily tinned for the same reasons.

Electronics
The principal used of tin in electronics is in the used of solders for the joining of electronic components. But there are many other varied uses in the general electronics field.

Tin chemicals
The used of tin chemicals is as PVC stabilisers, but besides this they are used in a very wide range of applications, for example as polymerisation catalysts in silicone resins and polyurethane foam manufacture and in ceramic pigments.

Plumbing solders
Plumbing solders containing lead are being replaced by safe tin-silver (usually 96.5 percent tin /3.5 percent silver) or tin-copper(97 to 99 percent tin/ 1 to 3 percent copper) alloys, particularly for drinking water systems.

Engineering alloys
Tin's unique properties is used as an alloy with other metals make it a useful material for a wide range of engineering applications.

Pewter and bronze in music and the arts
Pewter (an alloy containing about 92 percent tin with small amounts of other metals added for strength) has long been known for its decorative apperance and ease of working as a craft metal. Tin bronzes (alloys of copper with 5-20 percent tin) are renowned for their use in art castings and as bell metals.

Dental amalgams
Dental amalgam contains about 13 percent tin by weight together with silver and mercury. More than 7000 million dental fillings using this amalgam are implanted in the USA every year. Mercury-free alternative dental filling materials with double the amount of tin are under development.

Anti-corrosion and engineering coatings
Tin and tin-alloy coatings are widely used in the manufacture of bearings and in many kinds of machinery and fabricated parts both for their anti-corrosion and lubricant properties.

Wine capsules
A tin coating acted as a barrier layer in traditional lead-based capsules to prevent contact between the lead and teh wine. Tin-lead capsules are now being replaced with other materials but the most prestigious and closest in feel to the traditional capsules, are made from almost pure tin.

Fire retardants
The smoke suppression properties of tin in the form of zinc stannates make it a desirable replacement for fire retardant agents such as antimony trioxide.

Tin is important in the production of the common alloys bronze (tin and copper) and solder (tin and lead). Tin is also used as an alloy with titanium in the aerospace industry and as an ingredieent in some insecticides. The United States imports more than one-fifth of the average annual world production of tin. Most of the world's tin is produced by Malaysia, Brazil, Indonesia, Thailand, Bolivia and Australia.

C) The Malaysian Tin Industry
The tin mining industry was once a major contributor to the national economy. In 1979, Malaysia was producing almost 63,000 tonnes, accounting for 31 percent of world output. It was the world's leading producer and employed more than 40,000 people. By 1984, competition from new lower-cost mines in Brazil had already led to a sharp reduction in both Malaysian and Indonesian output, but the world price was sustained until October 1985, when it crashed by 50 percent. The Malaysian industry then shrank rapidly, surpassed in 1988 by Indonesia, which continued to support its mines with large subsidies. Malaysian production, however, has declined further and, for the first time, tin mining rates no mention in the current national plan.

In 1993, the tin industry continued to be the depressing when the country suffered further contraction in tin production, due to the low price of tin, depletion of economic reserves and continuing esclation of overhead costs. The average tin price level in 1993 which stood at RM13.09 per kg. is still far below-even costs of most Malaysian tin mines, even after the implementation of drastic cost cutting measures and increased operating efficiency. The number of mines has also declined sharply from 852 units in 1980 to 43 units as at the end of 1993 and expected to reduce further in 1994.

In 1993, the domestic production of tin also dropped dramatically. The total tin metal exports, which included export of local tin and re-export of foreign tin, also dropped and the total export value of tin metal in 1993 amounted to RM 488.9 million. The main export destinations in 1993 continued to be Japan , South Korea and Netherlands.

The Industrial Master Plan (IMP), launched by the Government in 1986, the Tin Industry (R&D) Board has been entrusted to promote the development of the dowmstream tin-based manufacturing industry in Malaysia. In this context, the Malaysian Tin Products Manufacturers' Association (MTPMA) was set up in early 1989 to promote and protect the interests of the dowmstream tin-based manufacturing sector in Malaysia.

Today, the tin of price has dropped to a low of approximately US$13-14 per kg compared to a high of US$29 per kg during its heyday. This price is no longer economical for most mines to operate, contributing to the demise of the tin industry in Malaysia as a whole, with the exception of a few relatively low-cost operators. (Cheang,K.K (1998), "The Asia-Pacific's Energy and Mining Magazine", May 1998, p.70-73)

At present, the tin-based manufacturing industry in Malaysia consists of three main product sectors namely solder, tinplate and pewter. Domestic consumption of locally refined tin metal increased from 4,569 tonnes in 1992 to 5,196 tonnes in 1993. Despite some progress made in the local downstrean tin-based manufacturing industry as reflected by the modest growth in the domestic tin metal consumption, the industry is at present still relatively small in terms of its contribution to the nation's manufacturing value-added activities. However, potential for the advancement of the industry is considerable, especially in the field of tin chemicals.

D) The International Tin Agreement

Of all commodities, tin is probably the one where conditions are most conducive to the success of a commodity agreement. There are relatively few major exporters, tin is important to all of them.

The bulk of the world's tin is produced by Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Bolivia. The largest producer is Malaysia. The country most dependent on tin is Bolivia. The most important uses of tin are in cans and in solder. Substitutes, such as plastics and aluminum, have become more andmore important for containers, while the resmelting of tin scrap has increased.

International attempts to regulate the tin market began back in the 1920s because of the depressed prices caused by an oversupply of tin after World War I, the main producing firms established voluntary production quotas. The members of the agreement accounted for about 90% of world output. The agreement was successful in supporting prices, but this success induced expanded operations by "free riders", tin producers who did not participate in the agreement even though they benefited from the higher prices it brought about. (Christopher L.Gilbert, 'International Commodity Agreements')

Every five years, a new agreement came into being, with the most recent being the 1981 Sixth International Tin Agreement, which included 22 producing and consuming nations. The agreement set floor and ceiling prices and provided for a Council to oversee operations. There was a buffer stock (usually about 15% of world production), whose manager bought and sold tin to keep the world price between the floor and ceiling. The Council also set export quotas and levied fines on members who violated them. The floor and ceiling prices had to be changed repeatedly and the buffer stock had been depleted several times. Nonetheless, there was modest success in limiting price fluctuations.(Christopher L.Gilbert, 'International Commodity Agreements')

In the early 1980s, the price of tin began a long downward slide. Consumers were tempted to substitute for tin. Production expanded greatly in Brazil and China while Malaysia tin production is started to decline.

E) Methods of Mining
Malaysia has used several types of mining methods in the tin mining industry. There are dredging, gravel pump, open cast, dulang washing and underground mining.

Dredging is one of the more common method of tin mining. It can be applied on low-lying areas with alluvial tin deposits. A dredge is a like platform which floats on an artificial lake. Dredging can be used to mine deposits found near the surface in areas prone to flooding. It is an efficient method of mining aluvial tin and is very expensive.

Gravel Pump is the most common method of extracting alluvial tin deposit in Malaysia. This method involves spraying high-pressure jets of water on rocks containing tin ore and breaking them up. The tin-bearing material is then washed dowm a depression called a sump. A pump brings the material up a palong, a gently sloping wooden structure which separates tin from other materials. The procedure of extracting tin is simple. As the tin-bearing materials flow down the palong, wooden bars across the palong, called riffles traps the heavier iron ore, leaving the rest of the material to be dumped as tailings.

Open cast mining is a method of digging the tin-bearing material from a surface with mechanical shovels. This type of mining is suitable for mining tin in stony grounds. In 1994, there were 9 such mines in Perak. It contributed to about 21% of its total production.




Dulang Washing is practised by small mines in Perak, most of them are run by a family without employees. This is a simple method of extracting alluvial tin in streams by panning. A dulang is a wooden pan of diameter 50cm. tin-bearing material from under the stream is scooped into a dulang and the dulang is twirled just below water level. The lighter sand particles are washed over the edge of the dulang while tin ore remains at the bottom. The dulang washers normally sell their products to larger mines.

Underground mines are established in areas with promising ore deposits. The shaft is the primary vertical channel through which people and ore are transported in and out of the mine. The miners' elevator is called a cage, and the ore reaches the surfaces via a car called a skip. A ventilation system near the main shaft ensures that the miners receive fresh air and prevents the accumulation of dangerous gases. A system of crosscuts connects the ore body to the main shaft at several levels, and these levels are, in turn connected by openings called raises. Stopes are the chambers where the ore is broken and mined.`

Year

Dredge

%

Gravel
Pump

%

Open
Cast

%

Under-
ground

%

Dulang
Washing

%

Others

%

Total

1970
1975
1980
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

23,931
20,329
18,222
11,963
10,267
9,515
6,072
3,522
1,355

32.4
31.6
29.7
37.3
36.1
45.9
42.3
33.9
21.0

40,739
35,183
34,484
13,263
12,216
6,476
3,886
3,426
2,438

55.2
54.7
56.2
41.4
42.9
31.3
27.1
33.0
37.8

2,504
2,535
2,705
2,905
2,173
1,754
1,592
1,653
1,375

3.4
3.9
4.4
9.1
7.6
8.5
11.1
15.9
21.3

2,254
1,894
1,085
103
102
71
71
48
72

3.1
2.9
1.8
0.3
0.4
0.3
0.5
0.5
1.1

2,828
3,081
3,246
2,835
2,601
2,065
1,640
1,059
721

3.8
4.8
5.3
8.8
9.1
10.0
11.4
10.2
11.2

1,539
1,342
1,662
965
1,109
829
1,078
676
497

2.1
2.1
2.7
3.0
3.9
4.0
7.5
6.5
7.7

73,795
64,364
61,404
32,034
28,468
20,710
14,339
10,384
6,458

(Table quoted from : http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/8643/methods.html)

Mining methods in Malaysia hardly changed in terms of popularity. Gravel-pump mining still mines the majority of the tin produce while open-cast mining rose from fourth in 1970 to second in 1994.

F) Tin Mining Hazards
Tin mining activities are usually carried out in populated areas like Klang Valley and the Kinta Valley in Malaysia. Furthermore, tin smelting is also carried out in populated areas like Penang and Butterworth. This is why tin mining affects people living in such areas. The main problems caused by mining are namely formation of wasteland, damage to natural drainage, pollution and the destruction of natural habitats.

The environmental problems caused by tin mining has been lessened with the help of governments in many countries. They passed laws which required tin mining companies to carry out restoration work after they have mined a parcel of excavated land. Discharge of waste from mines into the rivers are reduced to prevent the extent of damage on the environment.

Old mines in Malaysia are have been successfully converted into housing estates. Also with the growth of tourism, old mines are opened to allow tourist to get the taste of life in the olden days. Old mines therefore do not go to waste. Instead, they are given a new profitable use.

G) Collapse Of Tin Mining Industry In Malaysia
The downfall of the tin industry is not just a result of the price drop, but also due to the escalating costs of energy, skilled manpower, environmental constraints and land availability in comparison with other industries, which may get a higher priority for development over mining. Examples include the construction, electronics, manufacturing, information technology and agriculture. Tin have lost its glamour within the last decade because tin is being tarnished easily compared to gold. Gold is fast regaining some of its glitter.

Collapse of tin mining industry is due to:
    1) Falling in tin prices
    2) In the food packaging industry, substitutes like aluminium, paper and plastic were used instead of tin.
    3) People's awareness of environmental problems led them to recycle tin scraps and this further reduced the demand of tin.
    4) The rising cost of production.
    5) Rising energy cost raised the cost of mining to make it less profitable.
    6) High taxes were imposed on the amount of tin produced.
    7) Little land set aside for mining.
    8) Fewer areas were set aside for mining because of competition from profitable use of land.
The tin start decline in 1988 which is 4.9 percent decline of the output. However, the tin output grew about 3.8 percent to 32,034 tonnes in 1989. Malaysia is still the world's largest producer of tin, but output is unlikely to ever regain the 1980's level of 61,404 tonnes annually. In cooperation with other tin producers, Malaysia agreed to limit its exports as part of a program to assist the market's recovery from the 1985 collapse of the International Tin Council. Higher tin prices and falling stocks may bring an early end to the restrictions. (http://www.abisnet.com/malaysia_1.htm#Mining)

3. Related Cases

GEDDES: Canada Copper Mining

Mining In Papua (New Guinea)

Bolivia Gold Mining

Brazil Gold Mining and Environment

4. Draft Author: Rebecca Lau Wuan Chin, July 1999

EMAIL ME

II. Legal Clusters

5. Discourse and Status:

Agreement and Complete

6. Forum and Scope:

Malaysia and Unilateral

7. Decision Breadth:

1 (British Empire)

8. Legal Standing:

Law

III. Geographic Clusters

9. Geographic Locations

a. Geographic Domain: Asia

b. Geographic Site: East Asia

c. Geographic Impact: Malaysia

10. Sub-National Factors:

No

11. Type of Habitat:

Tropical

IV. Trade Clusters

12. Type of Measure:

Regulatory standards - on import and export

13. Direct v. Indirect Impacts:

Direct

14. Relation of Trade Measure to Environmental Impact

a. Directly Related to Product: Yes

b. Indirectly Related to Product: No

c. Not Related to Product: No

d. Related to Process: Yes

15. Trade Product Identification:

Tin

16. Economic Data

TABLE : TIN STATISTICS OF MALAYSIA

 

Item

1970

1980

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

Tin (Tonnes)
Iron Ore (Tonnes)
Gold (raw) *(Grammes)
Bauxite (Tonnes)
Ilmenite (Tonnes)
Copper Concentrates (Tonnes)
Coal (Tonnes)
Kaolin (Tonnes)
Limestone (Tonnes)
Silica Sand (Tonnes)
Silver (Grammes)

73,795
4,420,083
161,023
1,121,318
219,095
1,202
n.a
3,274
n.a
n.a
n.a

61,404
371,186
2,049,876
920,356
199,486
114,222
n.a
46,324
n.a
145,475
n.a

32,034
99,773
2,859,549
355,174
520,147
101,471
118,196
108,347
9,500,000
508,618
12,686,306

28,468
293,206
2,594,526
398,180
530,237
101,931
94,229
152,972
11,042,649
641,474
12,555,654

20,710
354,869
2,762,600
376,418
308,061
98,313
54,861
186,699
3,407,102
574,917
13,439,533

14,339
314,819
3,540,053
330,593
56,453
111,593
74,483
244,573
3,684,446
536,426
15,325,265

10,384
222,848
4,462,686
68,824
57,501
104,802
263,604
249,852
2,362,622
335,459
14,007,591

6,458
202,602
4,086,067
161,919
811
106,468
173,740
252,628
2,748,271
230,756
13,061,416


From the table, tin no longer plays an important in Malaysia's local produce. In 1970, tin was ranked 4th in productions but in 1994, it fell to an annual production of only 6,458 tonnes behind 7 other products. This significant drop meant that tin was no longer an important economy for Malaysia.

Domestic production of tin dropped dramatically to 10,384 tonnes in 1993 as compared to 14,339 tonnes in 1992 and 20,710 tonnes in 1991, way below the post war peak of 73,795 tonnes in 1970.


TABLE : THE FLOW OF TIN MINING INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA

 

Year

Production
(Tonnes)

Import
(Tonnes)

Export
Tonnes)

Average Price
(RM/kg.)

No.of
Mines

Employment

1970
1975
1980
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

73,795
64,364
61,404
32,034
28,468
20,710
14,339
10,384
6,458
 
13,726
18,476
8,422
23,857
21,732
30,536
33,264
27,277
35,574
92,631
77,940
69,498
49,480
52,703
42,425
45,149
35,545
35,327
10.99
15.94
35.72
23.09
16.45
15.05
15.25
13.09
14.14
1,083
910
852
255
141
92
63
43
39
49,453
39,736
39,009
12,695
8,508
6,594
4,672
2,296
2,006

This table shows that the impact tin mining has on Malaysia's economy. In the 1970s, tin mining employed 49,453 people in total but in 1994, that amount dropped to a mere 2,006 employees. Meanwhile, Malaysia also started importing more and more tin from other countries until finally in 1994, its import of tin exceeded its export of tin.

The year 1993 continued to be the depressing one for the tin industry when the country suffered further contraction in its tin production, due to the low price of tin, depletion of economic reserves and continuing esclation of overhead costs. The average tin price level in 1993 which stood at RM13.09 per kg. is still far below-even costs of most Malaysian tin mines, even after the implementation of drastic cost cutting measures and increased operating efficiency.Total tin metal exports, which included export of local tin and re-export of foreign tin, dropped from 45,149 tonnes in 1992 to 35,545 tonnes in 1993. Total export value of tin metal in 1993 amounted to RM 488.9 million. The main export destinations in 1993 continued to be Japan (8,288 tonnes), South Korea (4,627 tonnes) and Netherlands (4,285 tonnes).

(Tables quoted from : http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/8643/case.html)

17. Impact of Trade Restriction:

18. Industry Sector:

19. Exporters and Importers: Many countries

V. Environment Clusters

20. Environmental Problem Type:

The main problems caused by tin mining are namely formation of wasteland, damage to natural drainage, pollution and the destruction of natural habitats.

i) Formation of Wasteland
Mining oftens damages lands and creates wastelands. Wastelands are lands which are not able to support crops, unstable to build industries, factories on, unsuitable for transport....in short, unuable.
Mining affects the land during mining, large amounts of vegetations are removed to prevent obstacles to tin mining machineries which may hinder work progress. Subsequently, soil erosion occurs and this leads to the formation of large gaping holes in the groung. Rainwater fills up this hole and mining pools are formed. This mining pool contains large amounts of tailings left behind by alluvial mining which have been completely leached of most plant nutrients. These pools are therefore unable to support any forms of living things and areas like this becomes barren.

ii) Flooding and Disruption to River Flow
Disruption to river flow refers to how a river cannot continue its original flow because of obstacles along the way. This results in flooding in the area where it occurs.
When there is heavy rainfall at an abandoned mine, the tailings are washed into rivers together with the rain. The rivers then become silted. This leads to flooding in river valleys downstream.
In hilly areas, when the rain falls on great heaps of tailings, the hill slopes become unstable and landslides occur. Because of this, large amounts of soil and rock fall into riverbeds, decreasing the river capacity and causing flooding.

iii) Pollution
Pollution caused by tin mining happens in two different ways :-
    a) When tailings from tin mines are washed into a river, the river becomes polluted. The pollution results in the water being unpure and unsuitable for consuming purposes.
    b) During the smelting of tin, fuels are burnt for heat energy, thus adding pollutants into the atmosphere.

iv) Destruction of Natural Habitats
Plant and animal habitats are often destroyed too. An example of this is how mangrove and coral habitats have been damaged in parts of Malaysia, possibly as a result of tin mining near that area.

Land damaged by mining can be restored. The restoration work can be developed into different sections.

Firstly, gaping holes can be filled up completely with non-poisonous waste. If mining pools have already formed, then they can be shallower and then converted to lakes or ponds for recreational purposes. An example of this is Clearwater Sanctuary Club in Perak, Malaysia which was converted from a former tin mine.

Secondly, the heap of mining waste must be levelled. Some of the non-poisonous soil is used to fill up gaping holes formed in the ground. However, soil which are poisonous must be treated with chemicals. This process known as Chemical Treatment treats the soil by adding acidic substances into the soil to neutralize the effect of alkaline on it.

Thirdly, vegetation is replanted to protect the soil against wind and rain. Fertilizers are also added to fertilize the land for farming purposes.

21. Name, Type, and Diversity of Species

Name: N/A

Type: N/A

Diversity: N/A

22. Resource Impact and Effect: Regulatory

23. Urgency and Lifetime:

24. Substitutes:

VI. Other Factors

25. Culture:

26. Trans-Boundary Issues:

27. Rights:

28. Relevant Literature

http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/8643/history.html
http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/8643/uses.html
http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/8643/methods.html
http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/8643/case.html
http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/8643/hazards.html
http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/8643/recover.html
http://www.geocities.com/WallStreet/1369/Recreat.htm
http://www.geocities.com/WallStreet/1369/Invest.htm
http://www.cwsgolf.com.my/cws/history.html
http://www.abisnet.com/malaysia_1.htm#Mining
http://www.kpu.gov.my:1025/commodities/txmine.html
http://www.unu.edu/hq/unupbooks/80893e/80893E04.htm
http://www.unu.edu/hq/unupbooks/80893e/80893E03.htm
http://www.suash.com/malaysia.html
http://www.mining-journal.com/mj/MJ/16apr99.htm
http://www.asiawind.com/pub/forum/fhakka/mhonarc/msg00835.html
http://www.asiawind.com/pub/forum/fhakka/mhonarc/msg00836.html
Cheang,K.K (1998), "The Asia-Pacific's Energy and Mining Magazine", May 1998, p.70-73
Christopher L.Gilbert, 'International Commodity Agreements